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Coalbed methane development has proliferated across much of the western United States. Campbell County, Wyoming, in the Powder River Basin is one area that has seem some of the highest amounts of this development, most of it occurring on land where the surface use is livestock grazing, resulting in conflicts over resource use. This thesis takes a grounded theory approach to understanding the meaning that the ranchers that operate on this land have attached to this development. In doing so, this paper argues that these ranchers form opinions and attitudes based on how CBM has affected “the ranching way of life” and not simply on the perceived opportunity for economic gain. It also argues that although objections...
A two-dimensional finite element model was used to simulate the groundwater recovery process under various surface mining situations. The simulation results were used to predict the rate at which soil settlement takes place. It was found that the groundwater recovery process is very fast immediately after mine closure and cessation of dewatering programmes; a significant part of mine land settlement can be measured at such times. This paper presents a method for deriving the relationship between the re-establishment of the natural groundwater regime to its equilibrium position as existed prior to the commencement of mining operations and mine spoil settlement.
Issues related to energy saving and pollution reduction are closely related. Their importance has increased in recent years and presents considerable academic and industrial challenges. They generally represent complex tasks of a considerable scale and comprehensive interactions. The methodology and concepts of Process Integration have been developing over last thirty years [1] and have been considerably expended to tackle these problems [2]. International conferences provide a good opportunity to review the state-of-the-art in this field. One of the most established and well known conference is PRES. The 13th Conference on “Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction...
This study proposes the use of several problems of unstable steady state convection with variable fluid density in a porous layer of infinite horizontal extent as two-dimensional (2-D) test cases for density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport simulators. Unlike existing density-dependent model benchmarks, these problems have well-defined stability criteria that are determined analytically. These analytical stability indicators can be compared with numerical model results to test the ability of a code to accurately simulate buoyancy driven flow and diffusion. The basic analytical solution is for a horizontally infinite fluid-filled porous layer in which fluid density decreases with depth. The proposed...