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The purpose of this study is to evaluate tsunami hazard for the community of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay area, Alaska. This report will provide guidance to local emergency managers in tsunami hazard assessment. We used a numerical modeling method to estimate the extent of inundation by tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Our tsunami scenarios included a repeat of the tsunami of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as tsunami waves generated by two hypothetical Yakataga Gap earthquakes in northeastern Gulf of Alaska, hypothetical earthquakes in Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and local underwater landslides in Resurrection Bay. Results of numerical...
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Potential tsunami hazards for the Fox Islands communities of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor and Akutan were evaluated by numerically modeling the extent of inundation from tsunami waves generated by hypothetical earthquake sources and taking into account historical observations. Worst-case hypothetical scenarios are defined by analyzing results of a sensitivity study of the tsunami dynamics related to various slip distributions along the Aleutian megathrust. The worst-case scenarios for Unalaska and Akutan are thought to be thrust earthquakes in the Fox Islands region with magnitudes ranging from Mw 8.8 to Mw 9.1 that have their greatest slip at 30-40 km (18-25 mi) depth. We also consider Tohoku-type ruptures and an outer-rise...
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Staff from Alaska Earthquake Center, Geophysical Institute and Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys evaluated potential tsunami hazards for the city of Sand Point, on Popof Island in the Shumagin Islands archipelago. We numerically modeled the extent of inundation from tsunami waves generated by local and distant earthquake sources. We considered the results in light of historical observations. The worst-case scenarios are defined by analyzing results of the sensitivity study of the tsunami dynamics with respect to different slip distributions along the Aleutian megathrust. For the Sand Point area, the worst-case scenarios are thought to be thrust earthquakes in the Shumagin Islands region with magnitudes...
The paper traces the manner in which an obligation came to be imposed on select industries, requiring them to take account of amenity, wildlife and outdoor-recreational interests in the course of preparing and carrying out developmental schemes. Under pressure from the relevant voluntary bodies, the statutory obligations, first imposed on hydro-electric power development, were generalized to cover 'whole' industries, and then, under the Countryside Acts of 1967-68, were extended to all State utilities. The recent privatization of those industries has provided a further pretext for extending and strengthening the 'amenity' clause. The approach has provided important insights into how industry itself might become...
This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
A severe sustained drought in the Colorado River Basin would cause economic damages throughout the Basin. An integrated hydrologic-economic-institutional model introduced here shows that consumptive water users in headwaters states are particularly vulnerable to very large shortfalls and hence large damages because their rights are effectively junior to downstream users. Chronic shortfalls to consumptive users relying on diversions in excess of rights under the Colorado River Compact are also possible. Nonconsumptive water uses (for hydropower and recreation) are severely affected during the worst drought years as instream flows are reduced and reservoirs are depleted. Damages to these uses exceeds those to consumptive...
Snow covered area (SCA) observations from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) were used in combination with a distributed snowmelt model to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) in the headwaters of the Rio Grande basin (3,419 km2) - a spatial scale that is an order of magnitude greater than previous reconstruction model applications. In this reconstruction approach, modeled snowmelt over each pixel is integrated over the time of ETM+ observed snow cover to estimate SWE. Considerable differences in the magnitude of SWE were simulated during the study. Basin-wide mean SWE was 2�6 times greater in April 2001 versus 2002. Despite these climatological differences, the model adequately recovered SWE at intensive...
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We will develop a set of linked models to help predict the effects of climate change on rivers and endangered species. These will include watershed- and reach-scale models to predict streamflow, water temperatures, and other fish habitat metrics under various climatic scenarios for the reaches used by species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), plus a combined bioenergetics and life-cycle model (to be done by the U.S. Geological Survey [USGS]) to assess the impact of these factors on fish growth, reproduction, and survival. We propose to test the model framework at a site on the Methow River, Washington, to explore additional opportunities for collaboration and model development.
To determine the dominant processes controlling nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils and increase insights into soil N cycling from nitrogen isotope (?15N) data, patterns of 15N enrichment in soil profiles were compiled from studies on tropical, temperate, and boreal systems. The maximum 15N enrichment between litter and deeper soil layers varied strongly with mycorrhizal fungal association, averaging 9.6 � 0.4? in ectomycorrhizal systems and 4.6 � 0.5? in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. The 15N enrichment varied little with mean annual temperature, precipitation, or nitrification rates. One main factor controlling 15N in soil profiles, fractionation against 15N during N transfer by mycorrhizal fungi to host plants, leads...
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Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 2.5-mile (mi) reach of the Clear Fork Mohican River that extends approximately from State Route 97 to the downstream corporate boundary for Bellville, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District. The flood-inundation maps show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Clear Fork Mohican River at Bellville (station number 03131982). The maps can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage...
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The depth grids show the depth of flooding on the Clear Fork Mohican River near Bellville, Ohio on local map backgrounds, based on stages of 9.0 ft to 17.0 ft at the USGS streamgage, Clear Fork Mohican River at Bellville, Ohio, 03131982.
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This dataset represents the location and class density of potential annual grass risk within the Central Great Basin and Mojave Basin Ecoregion for the 2010 time period. This model represent a composite of multiple inductive (Maximum Entropy) models of varying annual grass cover using non-spectral landscape variables. Input Variables: elevation, aspect, distance to fire, geology, distance to hydric soils, distance to intermitant streams, landform, ombrotype, distance to perrenial streams, soil pH, density of primary roads, density of secondary/local roads, percent sandy soil, slope, thermotype. Classification of Model 0-No/Low Risk 1- < 5% Cover Risk 2- 5%-15% Cover Risk 3 - 15%-25% Cover Risk 4 - 25%-45% Cover...
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The dataset represents the work of multiple states and Federal agencies as part of the US Gap Analysis and LandFire programs. Multi-season satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) from 1999-2001 were used in conjunction with digital elevation model (DEM) derived datasets (e.g. elevation, landform) to model natural and semi-natural vegetation. The minimum mapping unit for this dataset is approximately 1 acre. Landcover classes are drawn from NatureServe's Ecological System concept. Five-hundred and fourty-four land cover classes composed of 12 cultural and 532 Natural/Semi-natural types are described. Land cover classes were mapped with a variety of techniques including decision tree classifiers, terrian modeling, inductive...
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The dataset represents the work of multiple states and Federal agencies as part of the US Gap Analysis and LandFire programs. Multi-season satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) from 1999-2001 were used in conjunction with digital elevation model (DEM) derived datasets (e.g. elevation, landform) to model natural and semi-natural vegetation. The minimum mapping unit for this dataset is approximately 1 acre. Landcover classes are drawn from NatureServe's Ecological System concept. Five-hundred and fourty-four land cover classes composed of 12 cultural and 532 Natural/Semi-natural types are described. Land cover classes were mapped with a variety of techniques including decision tree classifiers, terrian modeling, inductive...
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The dataset represents the work of multiple states and Federal agencies as part of the US Gap Analysis and LandFire programs. Multi-season satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) from 1999-2001 were used in conjunction with digital elevation model (DEM) derived datasets (e.g. elevation, landform) to model natural and semi-natural vegetation. The minimum mapping unit for this dataset is approximately 1 acre. Landcover classes are drawn from NatureServe's Ecological System concept. Five-hundred and fourty-four land cover classes composed of 12 cultural and 532 Natural/Semi-natural types are described. Land cover classes were mapped with a variety of techniques including decision tree classifiers, terrian modeling, inductive...
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This dataset was derived from 'NatureServe L48 ESLF V2.7'. See process steps for additional information. The dataset represents the work of multiple states and Federal agencies as part of the US Gap Analysis and LandFire programs. Multi-season satellite imagery (Landsat ETM+) from 1999-2001 were used in conjunction with digital elevation model (DEM) derived datasets (e.g. elevation, landform) to model natural and semi-natural vegetation. The minimum mapping unit for this dataset is approximately 1 acre. Landcover classes are drawn from NatureServe's Ecological System concept. Five-hundred and fourty-four land cover classes composed of 12 cultural and 532 Natural/Semi-natural types are described. Land cover classes...
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Both tabular and spatial models were used to predict fire regime departure at the sub-watershed scale (i.e., HUC 10 units). Integrating the fire regime models with predicted changes in climate envelopes provides a clearer understanding of how these ecological systems are likely to respond to multiple stresses. The natural range of variability for each CE was initially derived from LANDFIRE Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT) models. The VDDT allows for the development of probabilistic quantitative model of CEs consisting of multiple ecological states with both deterministic and probabilistic drivers. For any defined suite of drivers, the models predict the relative abundance of each state within a defined...
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This model provides one view of ecological integrity for the ecoregion, based on a model of near-future landscape condition, which has been summed into the 4x4km grid cells. Anthropogenic stressors come in many forms, from regional patterns of acid deposition or climate-induced ecosystem change, to local-scale patterns in agricultural drainage ditches and tiles, point-source pollution, land-conversion, and transportation corridors, among others. To be effective, a landscape condition model needs to incorporate multiple stressors, their varying individual intensities, the combined and cumulative effect of those stressors, and if possible, some measure of distance away from each stressor where negative effects remain...
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Both tabular and spatial models were used to predict fire regime departure at the sub-watershed scale (i.e., HUC 10 units). Integrating the fire regime models with predicted changes in climate envelopes provides a clearer understanding of how these ecological systems are likely to respond to multiple stresses. The natural range of variability for each CE was initially derived from LANDFIRE Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT) models. The VDDT allows for the development of probabilistic quantitative model of CEs consisting of multiple ecological states with both deterministic and probabilistic drivers. For any defined suite of drivers, the models predict the relative abundance of each state within a defined...
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Both tabular and spatial models were used to predict fire regime departure at the sub-watershed scale (i.e., HUC 10 units). Integrating the fire regime models with predicted changes in climate envelopes provides a clearer understanding of how these ecological systems are likely to respond to multiple stresses. The natural range of variability for each CE was initially derived from LANDFIRE Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT) models. The VDDT allows for the development of probabilistic quantitative model of CEs consisting of multiple ecological states with both deterministic and probabilistic drivers. For any defined suite of drivers, the models predict the relative abundance of each state within a defined...


map background search result map search result map Evaluating Climate-Induced Runoff and Temperature Change on Stream Habitat Metrics for Endangered or Threatened Fish - BOR Project FY2011 Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Fox Islands communities, including Dutch Harbor and Akutan, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps for the city of Sand Point, Alaska Depth grids for flood-inundation maps in and near Bellville, Ohio Floodplain boundaries for flood-inundation maps in and near Bellville, Ohio BLM REA COP 2010 NatureServe National Landcover (v27) ColoradoPlateauMixedBedrockCanyonTableland_NatureServe_DIST_30m BLM REA COP 2010 NatureServe National Landcover (v27) InterMountainBasinsBigSagebrushShrubland_NatureServe_DIST_30m BLM REA MAR 2012 NatureServe Terrestrial Ecosystems v2.9  - MAR BLM REA MBR 2010 Risk Model of Invasive Annual Grasses BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Inter-Mountain Basins Big Sagebrush Shrubland BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Inter-Mountain Basins Mixed Salt Desert Scrub BLM REA CBR 2010 Near-Future Landscape Condition by 4km grid cell - CBR & MBR BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Great Basin Pinyon-Juniper Woodland BLM REA CBR 2010 NatureServe COPMixedLowSagbrushShrublnd Terrestrial Ecological Systems Floodplain boundaries for flood-inundation maps in and near Bellville, Ohio Depth grids for flood-inundation maps in and near Bellville, Ohio Tsunami inundation maps for the city of Sand Point, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska Tsunami inundation maps of Fox Islands communities, including Dutch Harbor and Akutan, Alaska Evaluating Climate-Induced Runoff and Temperature Change on Stream Habitat Metrics for Endangered or Threatened Fish - BOR Project FY2011 BLM REA MAR 2012 NatureServe Terrestrial Ecosystems v2.9  - MAR BLM REA MBR 2010 Risk Model of Invasive Annual Grasses BLM REA COP 2010 NatureServe National Landcover (v27) ColoradoPlateauMixedBedrockCanyonTableland_NatureServe_DIST_30m BLM REA COP 2010 NatureServe National Landcover (v27) InterMountainBasinsBigSagebrushShrubland_NatureServe_DIST_30m BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Inter-Mountain Basins Mixed Salt Desert Scrub BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Great Basin Pinyon-Juniper Woodland BLM REA CBR 2010 Ecological System Fire Regime Departure - 2025 Inter-Mountain Basins Big Sagebrush Shrubland BLM REA CBR 2010 NatureServe COPMixedLowSagbrushShrublnd Terrestrial Ecological Systems BLM REA CBR 2010 Near-Future Landscape Condition by 4km grid cell - CBR & MBR