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Information about geographic distributions is required for species conservation and management. Ultimately, this information is derived from records of occurrence. However, the reliability and availability of occurrence records are variable. A conceptual framework for evaluating the reliability of occurrence records is provided. Only records associated with physical evidence, especially a museum voucher specimen, are considered verified. However, errors in species identification or location are possible even for verified records. In addition, biases exist in occurrence records because they generally are collected haphazardly. Other sources of bias include sampling error associated with small areas or range limits...
This cooperative effort by USDA Forest Service Research and the National Forest System assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of four forest carnivores in the western United States: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. The conservation assessment reviews the biology and ecology of these species. It also discusses management considerations stemming from what is known and identifies information needed. Overall, we found huge knowledge gaps that make it difficult to evaluate the species' conservation status. In the western United States, the forest carnivores in this assessment are limited to boreal forest ecosystems. These forests are characterized by extensive landscapes with...
We modeled populations of lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to determine prey densities required for persistence of lynx translocated to the southern portion of the species' range. The models suggested that a density of 1.1?1.8 hares/h is required for lynx persistence; these densities are higher than those reported for most hare populations across the USA. We found that lynx dispersal and density-independent mortality substantially increased the hare density required for lynx persistence. Reintroduction success was associated with number of release events, total number of animals released, and timing of release relative to the phase of the hare population cycle. However, no release protocol...