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We measured the surface velocity field during the summers of 1999 and 2000 on the 7 km long, 185 m thick Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA. In the spring of both years, a short-lived pulse of surface velocity, 2-4 times the annual mean velocity, propagated up-glacier from the terminus at a rate of similar to 200-250 m d super(-1). Displacement attributable to rapid sliding is similar to 5-10% of the annual surface motion, while the high-velocity event comprised 60-95% of annual basal motion. Sliding during the propagating speed-up event peaked at 6-14 cm super(-1), with the highest rates in mid-glacier. Continuous horizontal and vertical GPS measurements at one stake showed divergence and then convergence of the ice surface...
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A water balance study was carried out during summer 2003 to determine the rate of seepage from the sewage lagoon at Mayo, central Yukon Territory. The lagoon is largely dry, with over 85% of the total area covered by vegetation or bare soil. Measurements of precipitation, inflow, and pond water level, and estimates of evaporation were made to determine the rate of seepage from the lagoon. Precipitation was measured in a network of rain gauges, inflow at the Mayo lift station, and pond water level with staff gauges. Evaporation was estimated by a modified form of the Priestley-Taylor method, and from an evaporation pan placed in an infiltration pond. Daily estimates of seepage from two infiltration ponds at the lagoon...
Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning...
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Introduction. Systematic reviews of the social and physical determinants of health provide metrics for evaluation of programs to mitigate health disparities. Previous meta-analyses of the population health literature have identified several proximate social and physical determinants of population health in the circumpolar north including addiction, environmental exposures, diet/nutrition and global climate change. Proximate health determinants are most amenable to early detection and modification or mitigation through disease prevention or health promotion interventions. Design. There is a need for research to replicate these findings based on the latest science. This presentation describes a study applying Dahlgren...
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Solid Waste Management is severely deficient in rural Alaska. The majority of rural communities have unpermitted Class III landfills for waste disposal. These unpermitted landfills are commonly known as open dumps. Open dumps increase human health risks by exposure to solid and hazardous materials, including pathogens from human excreta disposed at dump sites due to lack of adequate solid waste, water and sewer facilities. Current federal and state policies lack adequate public health policies or public health actions to address this deficiency. This project analyzed five solid waste management policies that affect rural Alaska and provided three policy options and one public health action recommendation, including:...
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In the north, the presence of mercury (Hg) in food leading to chronic exposure is a scientific, economic and political issue. Guidelines have been established for the safe consumption of fish containing Hg, however, adherence to these guidelines must be weighed against the health benefits of consuming fish, such as from the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Alaskan Natives generally consume much more fish than the national average. This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data that has been generated on Hg in Alaska fish, particularly those consumed by Alaskans. Also included are a review of the benefits of eating fish, human health concerns relating to Hg toxicity...
In June 2004, we made snow pit studies and radio-echo soundings to seek ice core drilling sites on Mt. McKinley (63 degree N, 151 degree W, 6194 m a. s. L), Alaska. Pit studies at Denali Pass (5560 m a. s. l.) and Medical Camp (4350 m a. s. l.) show high-density layers near surface. These layers seem to relate with strong wind. From the comparison of the observed temperatures at the pits and temperatures at other ice coring sites in Alaska and Yukon, we suppose that no significant melting occurs at observed sites. Radio-echo soundings show that the ice thicknesses at High Camp (5220 m a. s. l.) and Denali Pass are 46-48 m and 60-67 m, respectively. Although we have a little information about accumulation rates,...
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In a temperate glacier there are typically one to several meltwater reservoirs affecting the shape and timing of the glacier's meltwater hydrograph. This study applies recessional analysis to define the number of meltwater reservoirs at the Matanuska Glacier, a large valley glacier (379km super(2)) in south-central Alaska with a relatively long discharge record (1995-2002). Three meltwater reservoirs were identified with mean residence times ( K) of 21.0, 37.1 and 88.8 hours. Annual mean K values show a significant drop to their lowest values in 1996, followed by a general increase from 1996 to 1998. During the interval 1999 to 2002, annual mean K values appear relatively stable and show little variation, with values...
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Regulatory, political, and institutional barriers have prevented broader use of rapid, simple, and inexpensive microbiological tests for Escherichia coli. By permitting greater use of chromogenic microbiological methods for compliance requirements by trained and certified operators of smaller public water systems, the cost of compliance should remain the same or decrease than when using distant laboratories. In fact, the lower cost of such methods would allow more frequent testing. New microbial methods allow greater public health protection because they are more sensitive to smaller amounts of contaminants in addition to allowing faster turnaround times--which would allow faster notification to the public. This...
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This report describes the results of a study to determine whether a community-based sentinel surveillance system can be developed and implemented to assess the health effects of climate change, and to contribute to local discussions to mitigate these health effects. The purpose of this report is to describe the process and outcomes of this innovative approach to identifying priority areas for adaptation investment. This report can be used to assist local, state and federal governments in determining how to develop actions and policies to promote adaptation to climate change. (This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,...


    map background search result map search result map Snow pit studies and radio-echo soundings on Mt. McKinley 2004 Meltwater reservoirs of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska (Meltwater, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, Residence time, Reservoirs, Hydrograph recession) Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Subglacial drainage system changes of the Gulkana Glacier, Alaska: discharge and sediment load observations and modelling Relationships between Health of Alaska Native Communities and Our Environment: Phase I-Exploring and Communicating Regional geochemical results from the analyses of rock, soil, and vegetation samples - Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, Alaska Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign Rapid microbial methods can improve public health protection Water balance and seepage estimates for the sewage lagoon at Mayo, central Yukon Territory Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions Participation in Governance and Well-Being in the Yukon Flats Subglacial drainage system changes of the Gulkana Glacier, Alaska: discharge and sediment load observations and modelling Meltwater reservoirs of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska (Meltwater, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, Residence time, Reservoirs, Hydrograph recession) Regional geochemical results from the analyses of rock, soil, and vegetation samples - Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, Alaska Water balance and seepage estimates for the sewage lagoon at Mayo, central Yukon Territory Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign Snow pit studies and radio-echo soundings on Mt. McKinley 2004 Participation in Governance and Well-Being in the Yukon Flats Relationships between Health of Alaska Native Communities and Our Environment: Phase I-Exploring and Communicating Rapid microbial methods can improve public health protection Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions