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There are three key drivers of the biodiversity crisis: (1) the well known existing threats to biodiversity such as habitat loss, invasive pest species and resource exploitation; (2) direct effects of climate-change, such as on coastal and high elevation communities and coral reefs; and (3) the interaction between existing threats and climate-change. The third driver is set to accelerate the biodiversity crisis beyond the impacts of the first and second drivers in isolation. In this review we assess these interactions, and suggest the policy and management responses that are needed to minimise their impacts. Renewed management and policy action that address known threats to biodiversity could substantially diminish...
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PURPOSE: The deployment of a national missile defense (NMD) program in Alaska, California, Massachusetts, and North Dakota is considered. The NMD system would be a fixed, land-based, non-nuclear missile defense system with a land- and space-based detection system capable of responding to limited strategic ballistic missile threats to the United States. The proposed Alaskan sites include Clear Air Force Station (AFS) in Denali Borough, Eareckson Air Station (AS) on Shemya Island, Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Fort Greely, and Yukon Training Area in Fairbanks North Star Borough. The proposed California site is Beale AFB. The proposed Massachusetts site is Cape Cod AFS. The proposed...
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There are comparatively few fossils that document the presence of the Pleistocene western camel (Camelops hesternus) in the unglaciated regions of Alaska and Yukon, northwestern North America (eastern Beringia). It has been previously reported on the basis of stratigraphic and radiocarbon data that this species was present within this region from the Sangamonian interglaciation (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5) through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, MIS 2). However, the continued presence of western camel through the LGM is at odds with its ecological preferences as inferred from more southerly parts of the continent. Here we report 43 new radiocarbon dates on 34 western camel fossils from Alaska and Yukon, including...
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A logical starting point for climate change adaptation in the forest sector is to proactlvely identify management practices and policies that have a higher likelihood of achieving management objectives across a wide range of potential climate futures. This should be followed by implementation of these options and monitoring their success in achieving management objectives within an adaptive management context. Here, we implement an approach to identify locally appropriate adaptation options by tapping into the experiential knowledge base of local forest practitioners while at the same time, building capacity within this community to implement the results. We engaged 30 forest practitioners who are involved with...
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In Canada, little is known about the governance of private protected areas (PPAs) and their contribution to the public interest. This dissertation evaluates the extent to which PPAs in Canada adhere to generally advanced principles of good governance---Direction, Legitimacy, Fairness, Performance and Accountability---and it assesses their contribution to the public interest. Findings from descriptive analysis of six case studies of Individual, Corporate, Non-Government and First Nation authorities indicate that principles are adhered to with relative vigor and visibility and that the public interest is generally advanced. The governance pattern is not strongly differentiated and it is generally uniform in strengths...
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Boreal regions contain more than half of the carbon in forested regions of the world and over 60% of the world's surface freshwater. Carbon storage and the flood control and water filtration provided by freshwaters and wetlands have recently been identified as the most important ecosystem services provided by boreal regions, with a value many times greater than current resource exploitation. Ecosystem services and sensitive ways of detecting their impairment have so far not been fully included in boreal conservation planning. Climate warming, via its effect on permafrost melting, insect damage, and forest fire, threatens to trigger large positive carbon feedbacks that may enhance the concentrations of greenhouse...
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Among the many recent developments explored in Canada's Changing North is the legal recognition of aboriginal rights by the Canadian state, which has led directly to significant increases in their political and economic power. It also examines how economic development, which has long focused on non-renewable natural resources, particularly minerals, has grown to an enormous scale. Development of arctic oil and gas, which hinges on world supplies and national and international politics, has meant major changes across the North. Some of the new national parks in the Canadian North are already under threat from mineral development. Northern tourism has made it possible for a wide variety of affluent visitors to visit...
ABSTRACT A critical element of an oil-discharge/hazardous-substance-release contingency plan is its utility in guiding protection of priority sensitive areas following a discharge or release. This paper discusses a cooperative effort to develop such a tool, the Geographic Response Strategy (GRS), that may be used by other regions in their own contingency plans. A GRS combines local knowledge of sensitive areas with proven operations and logistics into a document with specific guidance for rapid response that can be used in the field. A GRS includes a site map, photograph, and table of associated information describing the resources to protect, operational tactics to carry out the protection, equipment and personnel...
PURPOSE: The sale of two oil and gas development leases (tracts 191 and 199) in the Cook Inlet Planning Area of the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf is proposed. Lease Sale 191 is scheduled for 2004 and Lease Sale 199 for 2006. The proposed sales would include consideration of 517 whole or partial lease blocks in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, encompassing approximately 2.5 million acres. The area under consideration is located seaward of the Alaska submerged lands boundary in the Cook Inlet and extends from three to 30 miles from the shoreline in water depths ranging from 30 feet to more than 650 feet. The area lies between Kalgin Island on the south to a point near Shuyak Island. Only a small percentage of the blocks...
The Yukon government’s proposal to build a large hydroelectric dam on one of Yukon’s large undammed rivers raises major environmental concerns, particularly about impacts on important fish populations. Hydroelectric dams have a well-documented history of disrupting and even destroying the ecology of rivers and lakes in northern Canada. Impacts on fish populations and their habitats have been widespread and often irreversible. The Yukon Government’s Next Generation Hydro initiative has identified ten potential sites for such a dam. In this report we summarize the major risks to fish and fish habitats of a new hydroelectric dam on a large river with the goal of providing Yukon communities and citizens with better...


map background search result map search result map Governance of private protected areas in Canada: Advancing the public interest? Integrated landscape management in Canada: getting from here to there Climate Change and Hazard Zonation in the Circum-Arctic Permafrost Regions Methods and tools for addressing natural disturbance dynamics in conservation planning for wilderness areas Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management Canada's Changing North NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE DEPLOYMENT; FORT GREELY, SHEMYA ISLAND, AND DENALI AND FAIRBANKS NORTH STAR BOROUGHS, ALASKA, CALIFORNIA, MASSACHUSETTS, AND CAVALIER, GRAND FORKS, PEMBINA, RAMSEY, AND WALSH COUNTIES, NORTH DAKOTA Comprehensive conservation planning to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Canadian boreal regions under a warming climate and increasing exploitation Examining barriers and opportunities for sustainable adaptation to climate change in Interior Alaska Bradley Lake Invasive Plant Management Plan Bradley Lake Invasive Plant Management Plan Governance of private protected areas in Canada: Advancing the public interest? Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management Examining barriers and opportunities for sustainable adaptation to climate change in Interior Alaska Integrated landscape management in Canada: getting from here to there Canada's Changing North Climate Change and Hazard Zonation in the Circum-Arctic Permafrost Regions Methods and tools for addressing natural disturbance dynamics in conservation planning for wilderness areas Comprehensive conservation planning to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Canadian boreal regions under a warming climate and increasing exploitation NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE DEPLOYMENT; FORT GREELY, SHEMYA ISLAND, AND DENALI AND FAIRBANKS NORTH STAR BOROUGHS, ALASKA, CALIFORNIA, MASSACHUSETTS, AND CAVALIER, GRAND FORKS, PEMBINA, RAMSEY, AND WALSH COUNTIES, NORTH DAKOTA