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Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the...
Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the...
Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the...
This study measures the changes in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from US crop production under a scenario where farmers face higher energy prices with the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The focus is on predicting the impact on direct and indirect energy, resource use, and measuring the changes in specific GHGs. The study also assesses the potential for additional environmental benefits from the changes in agricultural resource use. The analyses rely on the results from a calibrated mathematical programming model of regional US crop production. The model accounts for input substitution when farmers are faced with external shocks. The results suggest that when energy prices increase, there is a relatively...
This study measures the changes in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from US crop production under a scenario where farmers face higher energy prices with the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The focus is on predicting the impact on direct and indirect energy, resource use, and measuring the changes in specific GHGs. The study also assesses the potential for additional environmental benefits from the changes in agricultural resource use. The analyses rely on the results from a calibrated mathematical programming model of regional US crop production. The model accounts for input substitution when farmers are faced with external shocks. The results suggest that when energy prices increase, there is a relatively...
We provide a brief historical background of the development of hydraulic fracturing models for use in the petroleum and other industries. We discuss scaling laws and the propagation regimes that control the growth of hydraulic fractures from the laboratory to the field scale. We introduce the mathematical equations and boundary conditions that govern the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss numerical implementation issues including: tracking of the fracture footprint, the control of the growth of the hydraulic fracture as a function of time, coupling of the equations, and time-stepping schemes. We demonstrate the complexity of hydraulic fracturing by means of an application example based on real data. Finally,...
This study measures the changes in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from US crop production under a scenario where farmers face higher energy prices with the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The focus is on predicting the impact on direct and indirect energy, resource use, and measuring the changes in specific GHGs. The study also assesses the potential for additional environmental benefits from the changes in agricultural resource use. The analyses rely on the results from a calibrated mathematical programming model of regional US crop production. The model accounts for input substitution when farmers are faced with external shocks. The results suggest that when energy prices increase, there is a relatively...