Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society (X)

13 results (134ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
Permanent vegetation plots in the northern Sonoran Desert, USA, provided an opportunity to assess the effects of recent drought on desert shrubs and to examine survival in relation to rainfall variability during the past 76 years. Survival and maximum longevity of six species were determined for eight intercensus periods between 1928 and 2004. Average annual survival was Ambrosia deltoidea, 0.9167 ?? 0.0415; Encelia farinosa, 0.7952 ?? 0.0926; Janusia gracilis, 0.9334 ?? 0.0247; Krameria grayi, 0.9702 ?? 0.0270; Larrea tridentata, 0.9861 ?? 0.0174; and Lycium berlandieri, 0.9910 ?? 0.0077. The longest-lived species were Larrea, Lycium, and Krameria, with average maximum life spans of 330, 211, and 184 years. Janusia,...
thumbnail
Mature and old-growth forests are often thought to be buffered against invasive species due to low levels of light and infrequent disturbance. Lianas (woody vines) and other climbing plants are also known to exhibit lower densities in older forests. As part of a larger survey of the lianas of the southern Lake Michigan region in mature and old-growth forests, the level of infestation by invasive lianas was evaluated. The only invasive liana detected in these surveys was Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (Celastraceae). Although this species had only attached to trees and reached the canopy in a few instances, it was present in 30% of transects surveyed, mostly as a component of the ground layer. Transects with C. orbiculatus...
thumbnail
A new survey of the Big Cypress National Preserve shows that the vascular flora consists of 145 families and 851 species. Of these, 72 are listed by the State of Florida as endangered or threatened plants, while many others are on the margins of their ranges. The survey also shows 158 species of exotic plants within the Preserve, some of which imperil native species by competing with them. Finally, we compare the flora of the Big Cypress National Preserve with those of the nearby Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve and the Everglades National Park. Although Big Cypress is less than half the size of Everglades National Park, it has 90% of the native species richness (693 vs. 772).
thumbnail
Riparian corridors promote dispersal of several species of exotic invasives worldwide. Dispersal plays a role in the colonization of exotic invasive species into new areas and this study was conducted to determine if the invasiveness of Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (Chinese yam) is facilitated by secondary dispersal of vegetative diaspores (bulbils) by water. Since seed production of this plant has not been observed in the United States, bulbils represent the only means of dispersal to new habitats. Dispersal was monitored by placing aquatic traps, tethered bulbils, and painted bulbil caches in a tributary of Drury Creek, Giant City State Park, Illinois. Results indicate that high-energy flow in the creek accelerated...
thumbnail
By the late 1980s the composition and structure of forest stands in the southern Appalachian spruce-fir zone were altered by insect infestations to Fraser fir. The response of red spruce, the sole remaining coniferous forest dominant, to this disturbance was followed over twenty years (1983-2003) in an old spruce-fir forest at Mt. Collins, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Although diameter growth of canopy red spruce (>30 cm dbh) at six plot sites was considerable (mean 10-yr increment 2.1 cm; 1993-2003), red spruce mortality increased sharply (mean 4% yr-1; 1993-2003). Wind-related mortality of canopy red spruce was substantial after the loss of Fraser fir from the canopy circa 1985 (>70% of the dead spruce...
thumbnail
Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected...
thumbnail
Soil nutrients and disturbance are two of the main abiotic factors that influence plant dominance (canopy cover), density, and fecundity in early successional old field plant communities. The manner in which the dominant species in old field successional systems respond to the interaction of nutrients and disturbance is poorly known. We examined the dominance, density of flowering tillers, and reproductive output of Tridens flavus, a perennial, warm-season bunchgrass that is important in old field succession, to varying soil nutrient and disturbance regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the interaction between nutrients and disturbance would influence the performance (cover, density, fecundity) of T. flavus. To...
thumbnail
Past and current dieback of Cercidium microphyllum, a dominant, drought-deciduous tree in the Sonoran Desert, was investigated at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Logistic regression predicted that the odds of a Cercidium plant being alive should decrease with increasing circumference, association with the columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea, and occurrence on steep slopes. Slope azimuth, parasitization by Phoradendron californicum, and distance to nearest Cercidium within 5 m did not significantly affect the odds of survival. Carnegiea was a source of background mortality rather than a primary cause of dieback. Of the >1,000 living and dead plants sampled, 7.7% had died within the past 5 to 7 years. An additional...
thumbnail
A total of 243 new species records, 60 new generic records, and 11 new family records were documented for Canyon de Chelly National Monument, bringing the known flora of the Monument to 771 species. This work is part of an inventory carried out throughout the National Park Service as part of the Natural Resource Challenge, a legislative and administrative mandate. Four species are on or proposed for the Navajo Nation Endangered Species List. Additions to the flora include Carex specuicola, a Listed Threatened species, and Zigadenus vaginatus, both on the Navajo Endangered Species List. Astragalus chuskanus, Cirsium chellyense, Lupinus caudatus subsp. cutleri, and a white-flowered form of Mertensia oblongifolia are...
thumbnail
Celastrus orbiculatus is an invasive liana in the Eastern United States. Its native congener, C. scandens, is less common and declining in the Northeast. The correct identification of these two species is often difficult because of their similar vegetative characteristics. Using morphological characteristics of both species growing naturally along a sand dune/forest ecotone, we built models for use in discriminating between the species, given a suite of leaf and fruit traits. We confirmed that the two species can be discriminated effectively using fruit characters, notably fruit volume and seed number. Several leaf traits, such as length-to-width ratio and leaf apex length can also discriminate between the species,...
thumbnail
Frequency of groundlayer plants was measured across oak woodland canopy gaps at three sites in northwest Indiana to examine how vegetation varied with gap size, direction along the gap edge, and microhabitat. Microhabitats were defined as under the canopy adjacent to the gap, along the gap edge, and within the gap. Gap-sites consisted of gaps plus adjacent tree canopy. Gaps were classified as small (16 ± 1 m2), medium (97 ± 8), and large (310 ± 32). Neither richness nor diversity differed among microhabitats, gap sizes, or edges. Similarity between microhabitats wthin a gap-site increased as the distance between plots decreased and as the difference in PAR decreased, the latter explaining twice the variation in...
thumbnail
Although popular and scientific literature frequently assumes a strong connection between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and good displays of spring-flowering annuals in the southwestern United States, such assumptions are based on anecdotal, short-term evidence. The goals of this study were to identify good wildflower years as objectively as possible, to assess the correlation between El Niño and good displays of spring-flowering annuals, and to examine the influence of rainfall amounts on good wildflower years. The terms “good displays” and “good wildflower years” refer to times or places when populations of showy spring-flowering annuals (often called winter annuals) are abundant, robust, and diverse. In...
thumbnail
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) is an invasive grass in the eastern half of the United States which can form dense monocultures in forest understories, displacing native species. Although the loss of native species has been observed in the field, the actual competitive ability of this grass has not been examined. Microstegium vimineum was grown under controlled environment, greenhouse conditions in competition with Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (annual rye grass) and Muhlenbergia mexicana (Mexican muhly) in varying density ratios in full and low light treatments. Microstegium vimineum had a greater aboveground biomass, relative growth rate, and reproductive output than both competitors in both light...


    map background search result map search result map A Checklist of the Vascular Flora of Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Apache County, Arizona A Checklist of the Vascular Flora of Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Apache County, Arizona