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Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are a species of concern because their population has declined rapidly since the mid-1960s and continues to remain below management objectives (Petersen et al. 1994). Emperor Geese are restricted primarily to Alaska and exhibit an east-west migration pattern, whereby most birds begin breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta by mid-May, stage on the Alaska Peninsula by late September, and migrate westward to winter in the Aleutian Archipelago from late November to mid-April (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977, Petersen et al. 1994). Demographic and movement studies have been conducted on breeding grounds and stagmg areas (e.g., Schmutz et al. 1994, 1997); however, the winter ecology of Emperor...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico (coastal Baja California, islands in the Gulf of California, and coastal Sonora and Sinaloa). With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benitos islands along the Pacific coast of Baja California (all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog), this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993, allowing for estimates of regional population trends. The minimum population estimate for the area we surveyed in 2006 was 1343 nesting pairs, an 81%...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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Fifty-two eggs (one per nest) of 12 species of raptors were collected in 1992-93 for contaminant analysis in three southern European locations in Russia. One Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) egg was also collected farther northwest in the Novgorod region. A high DDE concentration (27.3 ppm, wet weight [w/w]) in the Peregrine Falcon egg raised concern for the species in European Russia south of the Arctic Circle. Although a number of organochlorine contaminants were found in eggs of the other species, concentrations were all below known effect levels. Mercury levels were also extremely low. Nesting success in southern Russia in 1992 (only year with follow-up visits) appeared normal.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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One pale morph and two rufous-tawny morph Steppe Eagles (Aquila rapax) were observed among about 20 breeding pairs found in Mongolia. All three were attending live young. Plumage features of the rufous-tawny birds suggest that they were not adults. Subadult breeding is thereby documented for the Steppe Eagle. Breeding is also documented for a pale morph bird, but the age of this bird is uncertain; either it was the first pale morph adult known for the species or, more likely, it represents breeding of a two-, three-, or four-year old bird.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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The systematics of the Altay falcon (Falco altaicus/lorenzi) remains enigmatic. First reported in 1811, it has been treated as a gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus), a saker (F. cherrug), and two separate species (F. lorenzi and F. altaicus). Of 53 'altaicus' specimens examined, at least two are misidentified gyrfalcons, many are typical sakers, but 34 (the core group) are considered to be the true Altay falcon type. Adults have red, brown, and gray color morphs. The red (backed) morph closely resembles some eastern sakers; the chocolate and gray morphs resemble respective gyrfalcon morphs. While the true affinities of the Altay falcon will be resolved by molecular genetics, the ecological, geographical, and morphological...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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Herein, we report the first record of schizochromism in the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Our example is a nestling from southern Arizona. The lack of dark brown pigment in this bird made it closely resemble the blue-gray plumage of an adult. Near fledging time, the bird was eaten by its nestmates, so this article also documents cannibalism.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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We equipped adult Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from 24 nests in Oregon/Washington with satellite-tracked battery-powered radios, known as platform transmitter terminals (PTTs), in 1996–1999. These Ospreys from the lower Columbia River (river miles 76–286), and the Willamette Valley in western Oregon were part of a larger study of Osprey fall migration, wintering ecology, and spring migration, which included additional adults from the Upper Midwest and East Coast of the United States (Martell et al. 2001, 2014, Washburn et al. 2014). These early-generation PTTs weighed 30–35 g (Microwave Telemetry Inc., Columbia, MD U.S.A.) and utilized the ARGOS tracking system (www.argos-system.org). We placed PTTs on the birds'...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) breed in a variety of forested areas throughout the Pacific Northwest. Nevertheless, they were only first found breeding in the Coast Ranges of Oregon in 1995, despite apparently suitable habitat and abundant prey. We document the rarity of goshawks in the Coast Ranges by reviewing previous and current survey results for nests of goshawks and other forest birds since the 1960s, examining sightings of goshawks since 1980 and reporting on a survey we conducted in 1994. We suggest that nesting goshawks are rare in the Coast Ranges because of the vegetative structure of the area and its influence on prey availability. ?? 1997 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) are a common, widespread species that can be found in a variety of habitats across most of North America, but little is known about their space and habitat requirements. Using radiotelemetry, location data were collected on nine male and five female Great Horned Owls to determine home range and habitat use in southern California. Owls were tracked between January 1997 and September 1998 for periods ranging from 5-17 mo. Seven owls were also followed during 13 all-night observation periods. The mean 95% adaptive kernel home-range size for females was 180 ha (range = 88-282, SE = 36) and that for males was 425 ha (range = 147-1115 ha, SE = 105). Core areas estimated by the 50%...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research
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The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) was petitioned in 1997 to consider listing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, west of the 100th meridian of the contiguous United States. In their 12-mo finding issued in June 1998, the FWS determined that listing this population as threatened or endangered was not warranted and based that decision on review existing population and habitat information. Because the status of goshawks in the western U.S. continues to be contentious and the FWS finding has been challenged, the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc. and The Wildlife Society jointly formed a committee to review information regarding the status of the goshawk...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Raptor Research