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The ecology and phytosociology of a virgin grassland community (Virginia Park, Canyonlands National Park, Utah) have been investigated. Based on the use of C × F index, Hilaria jamesii and Stipa comata are the most abundant of the four major perennial grasses. Oryzopsis hymenoides and Sporobolus cryptandrus are less abundant in decreasing order. The sites dominated by Hilaria are characterized by soils with finer texture, slightly warmer average temperature and higher surface K+ and organic matter compared to sites dominated by Stipa comata. In addition, frequency of both vascular and cryptogamic species is greater on sites dominated by Hilaria. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 30, issue 4, on pages...
Sediment production and infiltration rates were measured in conjunction with an analysis of burning and grazing treatments in a chained pinyon-juniper study in southeastern Utah. While high natural variability was present among sites, no significant changes in sediment production were detected following our prescribed burning or grazing treatments. Following treatment, however, both the burned and grazed sites exhibited significantly depressed infiltration rates during certain time intervals in comparison to the ?undisturbed, natural? woodland control location. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 29, issue 1, on pages 83 - 85, in 1976.
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A comparative study was made of the soils of a virgin grassland and an adjacent grazed area in Canyonlands National Park. Soils from the virgin site were finer textured than those of the grazed area, and the surface 5 cm contains a significantly lower amount of calcium. In addition, the surface 5 cm of the virgin site contains significantly greater amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter. Subsurface soils in the two parks are less dissimilar. Cryptogams on the virgin grassland appear to have an important influence on chemical characteristics of the surface 5 cm of soil. The difference in surface soils between the parks may be related to the presence of these species. Data point strongly to light winter...
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To evaluate effects of noncommercial thinning, utilization of forages consumed by elk (Cervus elaphus L.), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.) was measured in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) stands in Custer State Park, S. D. Treatments consisted of unthinned (control; 22 to 32 m2/ha basal area), moderately thinned (12 to 22 m2/ha basal area), and heavily thinned (3 to 13 m2/ha basal area) stands of ponderosa pine. During June, July, and August, 1991 and 1992, about 7,000 individual plants were marked along permanent transects and percent-weight-removed by grazing was ocularly estimated. Sample plots were established along transects and plants...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Range Management
Infiltration and sediment data from small-plot studies (325 infiltrometer plots) utilizing high intensity simulated rainfall indicate that areas cleared of pinyon-juniper trees and seeded to grass in southern Utah generally show no consistent decrease or increase in sediment yields or infiltration rates at a given point. Of 14 sites studied, four indicated decreased infiltration rates and two indicated increased infiltration rates during one or more time intervals at specific points on the treated areas; one site had significantly less sediment yield and two sites had significantly higher sediment yields from points on the treated areas. These results nearly parallel those obtained during similar studies of 14 pinyon-juniper...
The influence of soil type, grazing level, and vegetation on infiltration rates were evaluated at the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado. Total plant material was significantly correlated with infiltration rates on two of the three soil types tested. Heavy grazing significantly decreased infiltration rates on two of the soil types. Grazing influences did not reduce infiltration rates until after 20 minutes of simulated rainfall. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 26, issue 2, on pages 126 - 129, in 1973.
The relation of some physical and chemical soil characteristics to cryptogamic crust development was determined from sites in semidesert regions of southern Utah. The effects of grazing on cryptogamic crust development also was examined. Electrical conductivity, percentage silt, and soil phosphorus were found to be correlated with well-developed cryptogamic crusts. Both total cryptogamic cover and the number of cryptogamic species decreased under grazing pressure. The management of rangelands, especially in arid regions, would be strengthened by understanding the role of cryptogamic crusts and considering them in range management decisions. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 35, issue 2, on pages 180...
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Plant competition experiments have historically used designs that are difficult to interpret due to confounding problems. Recently, designs based on a 'response function' approach have been proposed and tested in various plant mixture settings. For this study, 3 species were used that are important in current revegetation practices in the Intermountain West. 'Nordan' (Agropyron desertorum [Fish. ex Link] Shult.) and 'Hycrest' (A. cristatum [L.] Gaertn. x desertorum) crested wheatgrass are commonly-used revegetation species on rangelands susceptible to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion, although little quantitative data exist that compare their competitive abilities. We evaluated the competitive ability of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Range Management
Recent evidence associates the persistence of invasive plant species with disturbance and fluctuations in distinct forms of mineral N in soils. We conducted soil and hydroponic experiments to investigate the influence of N form and availability on germination and seedling development of 2 invasive annual grasses, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) and 6 perennial grasses, bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum x A. desertorum), Sand Hollow and Seaman?s Gulch big squirreltail (Elymus multisetus), and Little Camas and Little Wood bottlebrush squirreltail (E. elymoides ssp. brevifolius and E. elymoides ssp. elymoides, respectively)....
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Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Range Management
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Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Range Management
The invasion of halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus) on range lands of the Intermountain West has done much to bring these lands into public attention. Large sums of money have been spent for study and control of this plant. The soluble oxalates in this plant are toxic to livestock when consumed in large quantities over a short period of time. For this reason, a knowledge of the factors which affect the oxalate content is important. Therefore, a study was designed to determine the oxalate content of plants on various soils during different seasons of the year. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 13, issue 2, on pages 97 - 101, in 1960.
Three levels of vehicle impact (2, 8, 32 trips over the same tracks) were applied on rangelands near Ashland, Mont., using a four-wheel-drive Chevrolet Blazer with mud and snow radial tires. The impacts were applied each month, May to September, on previously unimpacted range. Canopy coverage measurements and ground and aerial photography were used to evaluate the impact effects. In the year of impact, canopy coverage measurements showed increasing damage to the vegetation as the number of trips increased. Damage was greater on very moist to wet soils than on dry soils. Vegetation measurements the year following the impacts did not show carry-over damage to vegetation from the 2 and 8 trip treatments, except for...
Rates and patterns of revegetation were studied during and after construction of the 500 kV Navajo Project Southern Transmission Line at two sites in the Arizona Sonoran Desert from 1972 through 1977. Herbs were reduced temporarily during the construction phase of the study. Perennial herbs did not return in the 5-year post-construction period. Annual herbs invaded immediately after disturbance. In one case annual herb density and diversity was higher after disturbance due to removal of larger woody plants. The tree and shrub community exhibited dynamic changes in cover, diversity, and richness, presumably in response to the climate. However, colonization by new species was not observed during the 5 years of study....
After wildfires in 1996 in the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) zones of west-central Utah, the USDI-BLM attempted to reduce soil erosion and cheatgrass proliferation (Bromus tectorum L.) through rehabilitation treatments. We compared the vegetation of aerially seeded, chained treatments with aerially seeded but non-chained treatments for 3 years following seeding. Vegetation cover increased significantly in both treatments between the first and second year, concurrent with above-average precipitation. By the second year, seeded grasses, primarily crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and intermediate wheatgrass Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Meld. and Elymus elongatus...
Pygmy rabbits were used in feeding trials to rate preference of 15 populations of 2 subspecies of big sagebrush (A rtemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, A rtemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Monoterpenoid content of sagebrush was determined for each population in the feeding trials and related to food preference. The rabbits showed no significant preference for one A rtemisia subspecies over the other; instead, selection was made at the population level. There was no significant correlation between monoterpenoid content and dietary preference of pygmy rabbits Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 35, issue 6, on pages 724 - 726, in 1982.
Vegetalh abitatc haracteristicasn d annuald ietarys electionw ere examined for the pygmy rabbit in southeastern Idaho. Areas selectedf or habitationb y pygmyr abbitsh ada significantlyg reater woody covera nd heightt hano thera reas.T otalg rass-forbb iomass was similar in rabbit and nonrabbit sites. Grass biomass was least and forb biomass greatest where pygmy rabbits were most abundant. Sagebrush was eaten throughout the year, although in lessera mountsi n summer( 51%)t han in winter( 99%0G). rassesa nd forbs were eaten through the summer (39 and 10%, respectively) and decreased in the diet through fall to winter. Sagebrush is critical to the pygmy rabbit for both food and cover, although in this study,c overa...
Phenological development of aboveground portions of shadscale and winterfat was observed for 7 years in Curlew Valley, Utah, and graphically related to patterns of precipitation and temperature. The considerable variation in year-to-year phenology should be noted by those taking data in other basic and applied studies. Preset dates for livestock management actions that ignore yearly phenological differences could result, in some years, in the plants being used during phenological states that are susceptible to damage by browsing. Seed set cannot be counted on every year, complicating one of the assumptions of rest-rotation grazing. Published in Journal of Range Management, volume 31, issue 1, on pages 43 - 45, in...
A recently burned area near Wallsburg, Wasatch County, Utah, was sampled to determine if differences existed between the soil algal flora of a burned area and that of an adjacent ecologically similar unburned area. Soil samples were cultured and analyzed to determine presence and relative frequency of living algae. The frequency of visible algal patches present after eight days of culturing was much higher in the unburned soil samples than in the burned samples. Percent relative frequencies and absolute densities of diatoms were also determined. Diatom floras of the two areas were very similar. However, the absolute densities of diatoms were significantly greater in the unburned samples. The major effect of the...


map background search result map search result map Soil Properties in Relation to Cryptogamic Groundcover in Canyonlands National Park Soil Properties in Relation to Cryptogamic Groundcover in Canyonlands National Park