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Twenty-two igneous and metamorphic rock samples were collected in a 20-km-long swath centered on the Alaska Highway between Tetlin Junction, Alaska, and the Canada border. Igneous and metamorphic rock samples were submitted to the Apatite to Zircon, Inc. laboratory (A2Z), where zircon U-Pb age analysis, using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), was performed by Paul O'Sullivan. The 15 felsic plutonic rock samples and one gabbro sample yield Cretaceous zircon U-Pb weighted-mean ages ranging from 95.7 Ma to 106.2 Ma. Zircons from a metadiorite yield a Triassic weighted-mean age of about 241.9 Ma. Metamorphic zircons from two samples with felsic igneous protoliths yield Mississippian...
Stream discharge and geochemical data were collected at two sites along lower Ashley Creek, Utah, from 1999 to 2003, to assess the success of a site specific salinity and Se remediation project. The remediation project involved the replacement of a leaking sewage lagoon system that was interacting with Mancos Shale and increasing the dissolved salinity and Se load in Ashley Creek. Regression modeling successfully simulated the mean daily dissolved salinity and Se loads (R(2) values ranging from 0.82 to 0.97) at both the upstream (AC1) and downstream (AC2/AC2A) sites during the study period. Prior to lagoon closure, net gain in dissolved-salinity load exceeded 2177 metric tons/month and decreased after remediation...
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Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center investigated the sedimentary and geochemical properties of the lower reaches of the Pascagoula River along the Mississippi coast of the Gulf of Mexico by collecting estuarine, riverine and marsh sediments. This was done in order to increase understanding of the region's environmental history, describe the long-term (millennial-scale) depositional history, and identify sedimentary intervals associated with extreme marine intrusions. To this end, the group obtained long sediment cores, shovel-dug sediment slabs and marsh and riverine channel/estuarine surface samples from a north-south transect along the river edge from...
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Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern...
Abstract The importance of snow and related cryospheric processes as an ecological factor has been recognized since at least the beginning of the twentieth century. Even today, however, many observations remain anecdotal. The research to date on cold-lands ecosystems results in scientists being unable to evaluate to what extent changes in the cryosphere will be characterized by abrupt changes in local and global biogeochemical cycles, and how these changes in seasonality may affect the rates and timing of key ecological processes. Studies of gas exchanges through snow have revealed that snow plays an important role in modulating wintertime soil biogeochemical processes, and that these can be the driving processes...
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Karst systems are useful for examining spatial and temporal variability in Critical Zone processes because they provide a window into the subsurface where waters have interacted with vegetation, soils, regolith, and bedrock across a range of length and time scales. The majority of Critical Zone research has emphasized silicate lithologies, which are typified by relatively slow rates of reactivity and incongruent weathering. However, weathering of carbonate dominated lithology can result in secondary mineral deposits, such as speleothems, which provide a long-term archive for Critical Zone processes. Examination of carbon isotope variability in speleothems has the potential to provide records of changes in vegetation,...
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This dataset provides information on fish species composition and their diet information for 16 lakes and 16 ponds at two locations on the central Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. In one table, we provide the presence of fish species and the total species count for each lake or pond sampled. This table also includes metrics of surface water connectivity to the stream network. In a second table, stomach content information is provided for fish collected during summer sampling periods (late June to mid-August) over three years (2011–2013). The third table includes stable carbon isotope and stable nitrogen isotope signature data for fish species and snails (the baseline organism) from 16 water bodies at one study location...
Isotope and trace-metal analyses were used to determine the origin of plants used to manufacture prehistoric textiles (basketry and matting) from archaeological sites in the western Great Basin. Research focused on strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratios of willow (Salix sp.) and tule (Schoenoplectus sp.), the dominant raw materials in Great Basin textiles. The oxygen-isotope data indicated that the willow and tule used to produce the textiles were harvested from the banks of rivers or in marshes characterized by flowing water and not from lakes or sinks. The strontium-isotope data were useful in showing which plants came from the Humboldt River and which came from rivers headed in the Sierra Nevada.
Quantifying biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen (N) and the associated fluxes to surface waters remains challenging, given the need to deal with spatial and temporal variability and to characterize complex and heterogeneous landscapes. We focused our study on catchments S14 and S15 located in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA, which have similar topographic and hydrologic characteristics but contrasting stream nitrate ($\hboxNO_3^-$) concentrations. We characterized the mechanisms by which $\hboxNO_3^-$ reaches the streams during hydrological events in these catchments, aiming to reconcile our field data with our conceptual model of factors that regulate nutrient exports from forested catchments. Combined...
To better understand large-scale interactions between fresh and saline groundwater beneath an Atlantic coastal estuary, an offshore drilling and sampling study was performed in a large barrier-bounded lagoon, Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA. Groundwater that was significantly fresher than overlying bay water was found in shallow plumes up to 8 m thick extending more than 1700 m offshore. Groundwater saltier than bay surface water was found locally beneath the lagoon and the barrier island, indicating recharge by saline water concentrated by evaporation prior to infiltration. Steep salinity and nutrient gradients occur within a few meters of the sediment surface in most locations studied, with buried peats and estuarine...
Characterization of uptake and loss dynamics is critical to understanding risks associated with contaminant exposure in aquatic animals. Dynamics are especially important in addressing questions such as why coexisting species in nature accumulate different levels of a contaminant. Here we manipulated copper (Cu) stable isotopic ratios (as an alternative to radioisotopes) to describe for the first time Cu dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate, the bivalve Corbicula fluminea. In the laboratory, Corbicula uptake and loss rate constants were determined from an environmentally realistic waterborne exposure to 65Cu (5.7 microg L(-1)). That is, we spiked deionized water with Cu that was 99.4% 65Cu. Net tracer uptake was...
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This data release presents zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology from igneous rocks exposed in a coastal exposure at Ursus Head, Iliamna C-2 Quadrangle. Sills and dikes exposed in a coastal exposure at Ursus Head are deformed within the Bruin Bay fault zone. Common dikes intruding late Triassic Kamishak Formation strata composing the hanging-wall of the Bruin Bay fault are cut by numerous small-scale, low-angle, bedding-parallel, and high angle contractional faults. Sample 09MAW006A collected from one of many dikes deformed in the fault zone produced a uni-modal distribution of zircon ages of with a weighted mean of 206.92 +/-0.96 (2 sigma, n=47) and an MSWD of 1.1. Sample 09BG020C collected from a sill of more mafic...
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Twenty-five ore and gangue mineral separates from the Miocene-age Goldfield and Tonopah epithermal Au-Ag deposits in southwestern Nevada were analyzed to determine the helium, neon, and argon (He, Ne, and Ar) isotopic compositions contained in fluid inclusions. Four mineral separates from the Butte Main Stage vein deposit and two from the Bingham pyrite-enargite vein deposits were also analyzed. Fifteen separates are from hand samples collected from underground mine workings and the remaining 16 are from mine tailings piles and pits excavated within the past 100 years. The separates consist dominantly of pyrite, enargite, and quartz, with lesser amounts of sphalerite, galena, potassium feldspar, bismuthinite, marcasite,...
Categories: Data; Tags: 3He/4He, Ar, Bingham Copper Mine, Bingham pyrite-enargite vein deposit, Butte Main Stage vein deposit, All tags...
Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different...
Summary Groundwater and surface water in Souss–Massa basin in the west-southern part of Morocco is characterized by a large variation in salinity, up to levels of 37 g L−1. The high salinity coupled with groundwater level decline pose serious problems for current irrigation and domestic water supplies as well as future exploitation. A combined hydrogeologic and isotopic investigation using several chemical and isotopic tracers such as Br/Cl, δ18O, δ2H, 3H, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, and 14C was carried out in order to determine the sources of water recharge to the aquifer, the origin of salinity, and the residence time of water. Stable isotope, 3H and 14C data indicate that the high Atlas mountains in the northern margin...
Dry deposition is a major component of total atmospheric nitrogen deposition and thus an important source of bioavailable nitrogen to ecosystems. However, relative to wet deposition, less is known regarding the sources and spatial variability of dry deposition. This is in part due to difficulty in measuring dry deposition and associated deposition velocities. Passive sampling techniques offer potential for improving our understanding of the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and aerosol N species, referred to here as dry deposition. We report dual nitrate isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) in actively collected dry and wet deposition across the high-deposition region of Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania....
In 2000–2002, three rangeland and six irrigated sites were instrumented to assess the storage and transit time of chemicals in thick (15 to 50 m) unsaturated zones (UZ) in the High Plains. These processes are likely to influence relations between land use and groundwater quality, yet they have not been documented systematically in the High Plains. Land use and climate were important controls on the size of subsoil chloride, nitrate, and pesticide compound reservoirs. The reservoirs under irrigated cropland generally were larger than those under rangeland because more chemicals were applied to cropland than to rangeland. In some cases, chloride and nitrate reservoirs under rangeland were larger than those under cropland,...
Tributaries may either ameliorate or exacerbate the geomorphic and ecologic impacts of flow regulation by altering the flux of water and sediment into the flow-regulated mainstem. To capture the effects of tributary influences on a flow regulated river, long-term discharge and cross-sectional data are used to assess the geomorphic and hydrologic impacts of impoundment. In addition, the use of the short-lived cosmogenic radioisotope 7Be (half-life 53·4 days) to link sediment transport dynamics to benthic macroinvertebrate community structure is evaluated. It is found that the 7Be activity of transitional bed load sediment is highly seasonal and reflects both variations in activity of sediment sources and limited...
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This report provides detailed (1:63,360-scale) mapping of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle (250 square miles; equivalent to four 7.5 minute quadrangles). The area is part of the Manley Hot Springs-Tofty mining districts and adjacent to the Rampart mining district to the north of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 Quadrangles. This report includes detailed bedrock, structural, stratigraphic, and geochronologic data. Based on the resulting geologic maps, field investigations, and laboratory materials analyses, the project has also generated derivative maps of geologic construction materials and geologic hazards.
Stream discharge and geochemical data were collected at two sites along lower Ashley Creek, Utah, from 1999 to 2003, to assess the success of a site specific salinity and Se remediation project. The remediation project involved the replacement of a leaking sewage lagoon system that was interacting with Mancos Shale and increasing the dissolved salinity and Se load in Ashley Creek. Regression modeling successfully simulated the mean daily dissolved salinity and Se loads (R(2) values ranging from 0.82 to 0.97) at both the upstream (AC1) and downstream (AC2/AC2A) sites during the study period. Prior to lagoon closure, net gain in dissolved-salinity load exceeded 2177 metric tons/month and decreased after remediation...


map background search result map search result map Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes. Fluid Inclusion Noble Gas Data from Goldfield and Tonopah Epithermal Au-Ag Deposits Fish Species Composition and Diet Information in Lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska, 2011-2013 Zircon U-Pb age data, Alaska Highway Corridor, Tanacross and Nabesna quadrangles, Alaska Zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results from dikes collected within the Bruin Bay fault zone, lower Cook Inlet Interpretive geologic bedrock map of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle, Central Alaska Sedimentary data from the lower Pascagoula River, Mississippi, USA Data from a reactive transport modeling study of cave seepage water chemistry Zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results from dikes collected within the Bruin Bay fault zone, lower Cook Inlet Data from a reactive transport modeling study of cave seepage water chemistry Sedimentary data from the lower Pascagoula River, Mississippi, USA Fish Species Composition and Diet Information in Lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska, 2011-2013 Interpretive geologic bedrock map of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle, Central Alaska Zircon U-Pb age data, Alaska Highway Corridor, Tanacross and Nabesna quadrangles, Alaska Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes. Fluid Inclusion Noble Gas Data from Goldfield and Tonopah Epithermal Au-Ag Deposits