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During the March-May 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow, approximately 102??106 m3 (82,000 acre-feet) of water was released into the channel at Morelos Dam, with additional releases further downstream. The majority of pulse flow water infiltrated and recharged the regional aquifer. Using groundwater-level and microgravity data we mapped the spatial and temporal distribution of changes in aquifer storage associated with pulse flow. Surface-water losses to infiltration were greatest around the Southerly International Boundary, where a lowered groundwater level owing to nearby pumping created increased storage potential as compared to other areas with shallower groundwater. Groundwater levels were elevated for several...
Various processes within the unsaturated zone affect ground-water availability and portability, as well as concentrations of water vapor and trace gases in the atmosphere. The rate at which precipitation or applied irrigation water infiltrates, its redistribution following infiltration, and the partitioning of the redistributed soil moisture between ground-water recharge and evapotranspiration affect the rate at which the ground-water reservoir is replenished and the degree to which ground water might be contaminated by chemical applications, spills, or disposal. Consequently, knowledge of and methods to quantitatively measure and predict these processes are needed to determine the impact of such societal practices...
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Soil frost measurements have been made at Sleepers River Research Watershed starting in 1983. Measurements were made by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory from 1983 to 1993, followed by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1993 to the present. Measurements started at 5 sites and has increased to 10 sites. Sites range in elevation from 225 to 670 meters and are in a mix of field and forest types. Soil frost measurements are made with tubes filled with methylene blue solution; on freezing, the methylene blue remains in the liquid phase, yielding clear ice that marks the depth of soil frost (Ricard and others, 1976). Soil frost measurements typically are made 2 to 4 times a month...
Water has been over-allocated all over the world; natural rivers have been over-exploited and regulated to manage storage and distribute the water to thirsty cities and agricultural lands. The Colorado River is no exception to this trend. It is one of the most regulated rivers in the world; the once mighty Delta that formed from the river has become a few hectares of native trees surrounded by agriculture lands and houses. At the border between Mexico and the U.S., the last of the Colorado's water is diverted, so that the last 160 kilometers of natural stream channel no longer carry regular flows and the river doesn't reach the sea. Because of this, the first binational environmental water allocation between Mexico...
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Two distributed parameter models, a one-dimensional (1D) model and a two-dimensional (2D) model, are developed to simulate overland flow in two small semiarid shrubland watersheds in the Jornada basin, southern New Mexico. The models are event-based and represent each watershed by an array of 1-m2 cells, in which the cell size is approximately equal to the average area of the shrubs. Each model uses only six parameters, for which values are obtained from field surveys and rainfall simulation experiments. In the 1D model, flow volumes through a fixed network are computed by a simple finite-difference solution to the 1D kinematic wave equation. In the 2D model, flow directions and volumes are computed by a second-order...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada and California. The DVRFS model grid is north-south-oriented, consists of 194 rows and 160 columns, and has a constant grid-cell spacing of 1,500 meters. Model cells are attributed with...
Tags: Amargosa Desert, Ash Meadows, California, California Valley, Chicago Valley, All tags...
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The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, calibrated a model to quantify the inflows and outflows in the Floral City, Inverness, and Hernando pools of the Tsala Apopka Lake basin in Citrus County, Florida. The calibrated model, which uses MODFLOW-NWT version 1.1.2, simulates hydrologic changes in pool stages, groundwater levels, spring flows, and streamflows caused by the diversion of streamflow from the Withlacoochee River to the Tsala Apopka Lake basin through water-control structures. A surface-water/groundwater flow model was developed using hydraulic parameters for lakes, streams, the unsaturated zone, and the underlying surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers...
This map service is an information surface which displays the hydrologic soil group class of each soil map unit based upon the dominant component in the soil map unit. Hydrologic soil groups are based on estimates of runoff potential. Soils are assigned to one of four groups according to the rate of water infiltration when the soils are not protected by vegetation, are thoroughly wet, and receive precipitation from long-duration storms. This map service is an information surface which displays the hydrologic soil group class of each soil map unit based upon the dominant component in the soil map unit. Hydrologic soil groups are based on estimates of runoff potential. Soils are assigned to one of four groups according...
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This product releases data on soil physical and hydraulic properties in the area affected by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico, USA. Soil samples were collected in the summer of 2015 to assess the state of the watershed following the 2011 wildfire. Data include soil-hydraulic properties of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity from tension infiltrometer measurements on soil cores. Soil physical properties include bulk density, as-sampled volumetric soil-water content, and saturated volumetric soil-water content for 6-cm length soil cores. Soil properties of soil-particle size, bulk density, and soil organic matter content from loss on ignition for soil core splits of 0-1. 1-3, and 3-6 cm depth....
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Santa Rosa Island, part of Channel Islands National Park off the coast of California, has a undergone a history of ecologic degradation due to introduced ungulate grazing for ranching (cattle and sheep) and hunting (deer and elk) purposes. Grazing in many parts of the island has resulted in widespread vegetation loss and subsequent erosion presumably causing changes in infiltration/runoff relations. In some areas, large sections of bedrock are exposed while other areas have thin soils left with much of the organic-rich materials removed. The reestablishment of healthy ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use is challenging. This issue is especially critical in cloud forests where the soil...
Summary Rainfall–runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4–51.2 mm h−1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2–4 h). Steady state was reached in 7–26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h−1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h−1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration...
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One of the determinants of runoff is the occurrence of excess rainfall events where rainfall rates exceed the infiltration capacity of soils. To help understand runoff risks, we calculated the probability of excess rainfall events across the Hawaiian landscape by comparing the probability distributions of projected rainfall frequency and land cover-specific infiltration capacity. We characterized soil infiltration capacity based on different land cover types (bare soil, grasses, and woody vegetation) and compared them to the frequency of large rainfall events under current and future (pseudo-global warming) climate scenarios. This simple analysis allowed us to map the potential risk of excess rainfall across the...
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One of the determinants of runoff is the occurrence of excess rainfall events where rainfall rates exceed the infiltration capacity of soils. To help understand runoff risks, we calculated the probability of excess rainfall events across the Hawaiian landscape by comparing the probability distributions of projected rainfall frequency and land cover-specific infiltration capacity. We characterized soil infiltration capacity based on different land cover types (bare soil, grasses, and woody vegetation) and compared them to the frequency of large rainfall events under current and future (pseudo-global warming) climate scenarios. Here we provide two rasters of excess rainfall for current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099)...
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are the dominant living cover in many drylands of the world. They possess many features that can influence different aspects of local hydrologic cycles, including soil porosity, absorptivity, roughness, aggregate stability, texture, pore formation, and water retention. The influence of biological soil crusts on these factors depends on their internal and external structure, which varies with climate, soil, and disturbance history. This paper presents the different types of biological soil crusts, discusses how crust type likely influences various aspects of the hydrologic cycle, and reviews what is known and not known about the influence of biological crusts on sediment production and...
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This Data Release includes information to support the characterization of surface/near-surface infiltration rates of selected landslide source area materials following Hurricane Maria across Puerto Rico, USA. The dataset includes comma-delimited measurements of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) collected over two field campaigns (Fall 2018 and Spring 2019) as well as laboratory-derived measurements of soil/saprolite texture. The Kfs experiments were conducted within (or in the vicinity of) landslide source areas across the three primary geologic terranes on the island (Bawiec, 1998), including intrusive, volcaniclastic, and submarine basalt/chert lithologies. Depending on site conditions and the hydrologic...
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One of the determinants of runoff is the occurrence of excess rainfall events where rainfall rates exceed the infiltration capacity of soils. To help understand runoff risks, we calculated the probability of excess rainfall events across the Hawaiian landscape by comparing the probability distributions of projected rainfall frequency and land cover-specific infiltration capacity. We characterized soil infiltration capacity based on different land cover types (bare soil, grasses, and woody vegetation) and compared them to the frequency of large rainfall events under current and future (pseudo-global warming) climate scenarios. Here we provide a raster stack that contain the probability of excess rainfall exceeding...
Microbial activity in semiarid and arid environments is closely related to the timing, intensity, and amount of precipitation. The characteristics of the soil surface, especially the influence of biological soil crusts, can determine the amount, location, and timing of water infiltration into desert soils, which, in turn, determines the type and size of microbial response. Nutrients resulting from this pulse then create a positive feedback as increases in microbial and plant biomass enhance future resource capture or, alternatively, may be lost to the atmosphere, deeper soils, or downslope patches. When rainfall intensity overwhelms the water infiltration capacity of the plant interspace or the plant patch, overland...
We investigated soil compaction and hydrologic responses from mechanically shredding Utah juniper (Juniperus ostesperma [Torr.] Little) to control fuels in a sagebrush/bunchgrass plant community (Artemisia nova A. Nelson, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young/Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. L�ve, Poa secunda J. Presl) on a gravelly loam soil with a 15% slope in the Onaqui Mountains of Utah. Rain simulations were applied on 0.5-m2 runoff plots at 64 mm � h?1 (dry run: soil initially dry) and 102 mm � h?1 (wet run: soil initially wet). Runoff and sediment were collected from runoff plots placed in five blocks, each containing four microsites (juniper mound, shrub mound, vegetation-free or...
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Dataset includes publicly available geologic and rainfall data, and environmental and ecological data derived or collected for this project. Specifically, water infiltration measurements, interepreted field-saturated hydraulic conductivity values, ungulate activity, vegetation cover, general soil and weather conditions data are included. Soil samples were collected, lab analyzed, and are included in the dataset. Field-collected data are associated with plots that encompassed approximately a 3 x 3 m area; site data represent approximately 20 x 20 m. First posted: 4 March 2020 (available from author) Revised: April 13, 2020 (version 2.0) The revision is provided due to minor refinement of the dataset and updated...
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This map service is an information surface representing the dominant class within the soil map unit polygon for soil drainage class. Each component (and therefore soil map unit polygon) falls into one of the following classes according to NRCS: Very Poorly Drained, Poorly Drained, Somewhat Poorly Drained, Moderately Well Drained, Well Drained, Somewhat Excessively Drained and Excessively Drained. Of soil components which make up greater than or equal to 15% of the soil map unit, the wettest component is reported by the map service. Another service exists for drainage class which reports the dominant class in the soil map unit. The concept is similar but for some purposes knowing the dominant component may be...


map background search result map search result map One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico Wettest Soil Drainage Class Dominant Soil Hydrologic Group Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties in the Area Affected by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico Infiltration data collected post-Hurricane Maria across landslide source area materials, Puerto Rico, USA Hawaiian Islands datasets quantifying the effects of invasive animals and plants on native forests across the archipelago 2019 (ver. 2.0 April 2020) Soil Frost at Sleepers River Research Watershed, Danville, Vermont Hydraulic Property Data at the Santa Rosa Island Cloud Forest Restoration Site 2017-2019, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California MODFLOW-NWT data sets for simulation of Effects of Surface-Water and Groundwater Inflows and Outflows on the Hydrology of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida Hawaiian Islands excess rainfall conditions under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) climate scenarios Hawaiian Islands probability of excess rainfall conditions under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) scenarios Hawaiian Islands probability of excess rainfall conditions by land cover type under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) scenarios Hydraulic Property Data at the Santa Rosa Island Cloud Forest Restoration Site 2017-2019, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA Soil Frost at Sleepers River Research Watershed, Danville, Vermont Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties in the Area Affected by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico One- and two-dimensional modelling of overland flow in semiarid shrubland, Jornada basin, New Mexico MODFLOW-NWT data sets for simulation of Effects of Surface-Water and Groundwater Inflows and Outflows on the Hydrology of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California Hawaiian Islands datasets quantifying the effects of invasive animals and plants on native forests across the archipelago 2019 (ver. 2.0 April 2020) Hawaiian Islands excess rainfall conditions under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) climate scenarios Hawaiian Islands probability of excess rainfall conditions under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) scenarios Hawaiian Islands probability of excess rainfall conditions by land cover type under current (2002-2012) and future (2090-2099) scenarios Wettest Soil Drainage Class Dominant Soil Hydrologic Group Infiltration data collected post-Hurricane Maria across landslide source area materials, Puerto Rico, USA