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This work is part of a study of the immunological effects of exposure to alternative flame retardants in avian species. For the pathology portion of the study, hatchling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to the flame retardant isopropyl triphenyl phosphate (ITP) and then challenged with a synthetic analogue of viral double-stranded RNA, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Control birds were challenged with vehicle only or vehicle and poly I:C. At euthanasia, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. Slides were processed and stained with hematoxalin and eosin as per standard procedure (Luna 1968). Quantitative...
Abstract (from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142031): Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees ( Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization...
This work is part of a study of the immunological effects of exposure to alternative flame retardants in avian species. For the pathology portion of the study, spleens and bursas from American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed by egg injection to varying doses of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and the flame retardant TBBPA-BDBPE were examined microscopically for architectural and cellular abnormalities. At euthanasia, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. Slides were processed and stained with hematoxalin and eosin as per standard procedure (Luna 1968). Quantitative and qualitative B and T cell parameters were assessed...
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This data set contains individual adult bighorn sheep entry and exit/censor times for 3 disease states and 2 mortality states: susceptible, infected and recovered and disease-caused death and non-disease related death. These times are used in a time-to-event analysis that employs a mixture model approach to characterize transition rates between states.
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Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fishes, which is poorly understood, largely because its causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is intractable to cell culture. Natural VEN epizootics and observations studies in wild populations suggest that temperature may be an important disease cofactor. Here, a controlled laboratory exposure study provides evidence for a direct relationship between temperature and the progression of viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) in Pacific herring. Waterborne exposure of Pacific herring to kidney homogenates containing ENV resulted in the establishment of infections, characterized by high infection prevalence (89%; 40/45) and mean viral...


    map background search result map search result map Host vs. Pathogen Evolutionary Arms Race: Effects of Exposure History on Individual Response to a Genetically Diverse Pathogen Infection prevalence and viral load in pacific herring exposed to erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) at 3 temperatures Infection prevalence and viral load in pacific herring exposed to erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) at 3 temperatures Host vs. Pathogen Evolutionary Arms Race: Effects of Exposure History on Individual Response to a Genetically Diverse Pathogen