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This work is part of a study of the immunological effects of exposure to alternative flame retardants in avian species. For the pathology portion of the study, hatchling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to the flame retardant isopropyl triphenyl phosphate (ITP) and then challenged with a synthetic analogue of viral double-stranded RNA, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Control birds were challenged with vehicle only or vehicle and poly I:C. At euthanasia, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. Slides were processed and stained with hematoxalin and eosin as per standard procedure (Luna 1968). Quantitative...