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There is growing evidence that headwater stream ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changing climate and land use, but managers are challenged by the need to address these threats at a landscape scale, often through coordination with multiple management agencies and landowners. This project sought to provide an example of cooperative landscape decision-making by addressing the conservation of headwater stream ecosystems in the face of climate change at the watershed scale. Predictive models were built for critical resources to examine the effects of the potential alternative actions on the objectives, taking account of climate effects and examining whether there are key uncertainties that impede decision making....
There is growing evidence that headwater stream ecosystems are vulnerable to changing climate and land use, but their conservation is challenged by the need to address the threats at a landscape scale, often through coordination with multiple management agencies and landowners. A decision faced by managers of headwater systems is how to best manage stream habitats to maximize their suitability for multiple species of conservation concern, including stream salamanders and brook trout, which occur in different parts of a stream network, are affected by both the terrestrial landscape and each other, and are likely influenced by future climate change. Because streams and terrestrial habitats are linked, decisions relating...
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This database contains aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate abundance data derived from samples collected from 33 75-meter stream site locations within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation area in September of 2006. The database contains two separate table files (i.e., entities) in csv format: 1) Macroinvertebrate site abundance data and 2) site location data. For macroinvertebrate data, six samples were collected within 2-3 riffle areas within each site location with Portable Invertebrate Box Samplers (0.1-m2 sample area, 350 micron mesh collecting nets). Where possible, organisms were identified to the genus taxonomic level using a stereoscope except for organisms of the family Chironomidae and class Oliogochaeta,...
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This database contains hourly water and air temperature data from 120 site locations within 17 watersheds in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia between June 23,2012 and October 25, 2016. The database includes three separate table files (i.e, entities) in csv format: 1) Water temperature data, 2) air temperature data, and 3) site location data. All temperature data were collected using HOBO Pro V2 thermographs (accuracy = 0.2 degrees Celsius, drift = <0.1 degrees Celsius per year per year). These raw data were summarized to mean daily air and water temperatures for the analysis used in Johnson et al. Johnson, Z.C., Snyder, C.D. and Hitt, N.P., 2017, Landform features and seasonal precipitation predict shallow groundwater...
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In July 2016, July 2019, and March 2020, 318 seismic recordings were acquired at locations within Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, using MOHO Tromino Model TEP-3C three-component seismometers to assess depth to bedrock using the HVSR method. This method requires a measurement of estimate of shear wave velocity, which depends on the regolith sediment composition and density, for the conversion of measured resonance frequency to a depth to bedrock. Shear wave velocities were calculated for sediment in Shenandoah NP at locations where regolith thickness is known (e.g. at documented boreholes). The locations in this study were generally selected to characterize the depths to bedrock adjacent to streams monitored...
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Conclusions: At small spatial scales, where extirpation risks are high, landscape fragmentation will likely have long-term negative consequences on the genetic variation of individual assemblages of coastal cutthroat trout. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study aimed to determine if coastal cutthroat trout were genetically structured within streams and to assess the effects of habitat fragmentation on coastal cutthroat trout genetic variation. Habitat fragmented by roads and other human disturbances acted as dispersal barriers, which strongly influenced coastal cutthroat trout genetic structure, diversity, and differentiation. At range-wide spatial scales, fragmentation potentially contributes to coastal cutthroat...
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Final aquatic coarse filter for Headwater Streams. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data. The BLM should be cited as the data source in any products derived from these data.
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Final distribution model for the aquatic ecosystems. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data. The BLM should be cited as the data source in any products derived from these data.
AbstractWe analyzed the associations of catchment-scale and riparian-scale environmental factors with occurrence of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Connecticut headwater stream segments with catchment areas of <15 km2 . A hierarchical Bayesian approach was applied to a statewide stream survey data set, in which Brook Trout detection probability was incorporated and statistical significance of environmental covariates was based on 95% credible intervals of estimated coefficients that did not overlap a value of zero. Forested land at the catchment scale was the most important covariate affecting Brook Trout occurrence; i.e., heavily forested catchments with corresponding low levels of developed and impervious...
Many headwater streams in the midwestern United States were channelized for agricultural drainage. Conservation practices are implemented to reduce nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings within these altered streams. The impact of these practices is not well understood because their ecological impacts have not been evaluated and the relationships between water chemistry and fishes are not well understood. We evaluated relationships between water chemistry and fish communities within channelized headwater streams of Cedar Creek, Indiana, and Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio. Measurements of water chemistry, hydrology, and fishes have been collected from 20 sites beginning in 2005. Multiple regression analyses indicated...
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Synopsis: This study summarized results of a comparative 15N-tracer study from a wide variety of sites throughout the United States, to derive general principles related to headwater streams and nitrogen dynamics. Standardized protocols were applied in 12 headwater streams representing a wide diversity of biomes throughout the United States. These sites were part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX). The most rapid uptake and transformation of inorganic nitrogen occurred in the smallest streams. Ammonium entering these streams was removed within a few tens to hundreds of meters, primarily through assimilation by microorganisms, sorption to sediments, and nitrification. Nitrate was also removed from...
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Spatial reconnaissance of fluvial microcystins (MC) concentrations and select water-quality parameters, including nutrients and periphyton biomass, in 75 wadeable streams in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA during 2014. Data set includes only those data specifically discussed in the associated journal article: Loftin, K.A., Clark, J.M., Journey, C.A., Kolpin, D.W., Van Metre, P.C., and Bradley, P.M., 2016, Spatial and temporal variation in microcystins occurrence in wadeable streams in the southeastern USA: Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3391.
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Data includes fine‑scale (1.5 cm minimum resolution) vertical solute concentrations for filtered methylmercury (ng/L), filtered total mercury (ng/L), dissolved organic carbon (mg/L), and dissolved chloride (micromole/L) in SixMile Brook, New York and McTier Creek, South Carolina. Vertical solute data were assessed one time at one site in each stream in 2009, at edge-of-water (margin) and center-of-channel (channel) using two mini-piezometer (USGS MINIPOINT) devices (seven 0.325 cm stainless steel tubes, 0.8 cm screened interval). Each MINIPOINT device was installed with sampling points in surface water and at approximately 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 30, and 60 cm below the bed-sediment/surface water interface.
Herbaceous riparian buffers (CP 21 grass filter strips) are a widely used agricultural conservation practice in the United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings to agricultural streams. The ecological impacts of herbaceous riparian buffers on the channelized agricultural headwater streams that are common throughout the midwestern United States have not been evaluated. We sampled riparian habitat, geomorphology, instream habitat, water chemistry, fishes, and amphibians for 4 years from three channelized agricultural headwater streams without herbaceous riparian buffers and three channelized streams with herbaceous riparian buffers in central Ohio. Only seven of 55 response variables exhibited...
What will the rivers of the Pacific Northwest look like in the future? Will they be stable or unstable? Will the waters be cold and clear or warm and muddy? Will they have salmon or other species? These questions motivated our two-year study of climate warming effects on headwater streams draining the Cascade Mountains. Using a novel combination of snow, geohydrology, and sediment transport models we assessed the vulnerability of stream channels to changing peak streamflow. Our snow modeling shows that with just a 2°C warming, snowfall shifts to rainfall at all elevations, peak snowpacks occur over two months earlier, and snowpacks are reduced by over half of historical values. Our geohydrology modeling shows that...


    map background search result map search result map Projecting the Future of Headwater Streams to inform Management Decisions Influences of barriers to movement on within-watershed genetic variation of coastal cutthroat trout Control of Nitrogen Export from Watersheds by Headwater Streams Periphyton (1993-2011) and Water Quality (2014) Data for ET&C Article Entitled Spatial and Temporal Variation in Microcystins Occurrence in Wadeable Streams in the Southeastern USA Vertical gradients of filtered methylmercury, filtered total mercury, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved chloride in stream-bed sediments at SixMile Brook, New York and McTier Creek, South Carolina during summer 2009 Air-water temperature data for the study of groundwater influence on stream thermal regimes in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia BLM REA SNK 2010 AE Ecosystems BLM REA SNK 2010 AE Ecosystems Status Headwater Streams Benthic macroinvertebrates abundance data for the study of urbanization effects in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, (2006) Passive seismic data collected along headwater stream corridors in Shenandoah National Park in 2016 - 2020 Influences of barriers to movement on within-watershed genetic variation of coastal cutthroat trout Benthic macroinvertebrates abundance data for the study of urbanization effects in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, (2006) Passive seismic data collected along headwater stream corridors in Shenandoah National Park in 2016 - 2020 Air-water temperature data for the study of groundwater influence on stream thermal regimes in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia Periphyton (1993-2011) and Water Quality (2014) Data for ET&C Article Entitled Spatial and Temporal Variation in Microcystins Occurrence in Wadeable Streams in the Southeastern USA Vertical gradients of filtered methylmercury, filtered total mercury, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved chloride in stream-bed sediments at SixMile Brook, New York and McTier Creek, South Carolina during summer 2009 BLM REA SNK 2010 AE Ecosystems BLM REA SNK 2010 AE Ecosystems Status Headwater Streams Projecting the Future of Headwater Streams to inform Management Decisions Control of Nitrogen Export from Watersheds by Headwater Streams