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To determine inundation patterns and calculate site-specific tidal datums, we deployed water level data loggers (Model 3001, Solinst Canada Ltd., Georgetown, Ontario, Canada and Model U-20-001-01-Ti, Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA, USA) at all sites over the study period. Each site had one or two loggers (n = 16). We placed loggers at the mouth and upper reaches of second-order tidal channels to capture high tides and determine seasonal inundation patterns. Water loggers collected water level readings every six minutes starting on the date of deployment and continuing to the present. We used data from the lowest elevation logger at each site to develop local hydrographs and inundation rates. We surveyed loggers...
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The research was conducted at nine tidal marshes in coastal estuaries spanning the Washington and Oregon coastlines from Padilla Bay in northern Washington to Bandon located at the mouth of the Coquille River in southern Oregon. We performed bathymetric surveys using a shallow-water echo-sounding system comprised of an acoustic profiler, Leica Viva RTK GPS, and laptop computer mounted on a shallow-draft, portable flat-bottom boat. The RTK GPS enabled high resolution elevations of the water surface. The rover positions were received from the Leica Smartnet system (www.lecia-geosystems.com) or base station and referenced to the same bench mark used in the elevation surveys. We mounted a variable frequency transducer...
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To assess the current topography of tidal marsh at the study sites we conducted survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) surveys between 2009 and 2014 using a Leica RX1200 Real Time Kinematic (RTK) rover (±1 cm horizontal, ±2 cm vertical accuracy; Leica Geosystems Inc., Norcross, GA; Figure 4). At sites with RTK GPS network coverage (Padilla, Port Susan, Nisqually, Siletz, Bull Island, and Bandon), rover positions were received in real time from the Leica Smartnet system via a CDMA modem (www.lecia-geosystems.com). At sites without network coverage (Skokomish, Grays Harbor, and Willapa), rover positions were received in real time from a Leica GS10 antenna base station via radio link. At sites where we used the...
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We used WARMER, a 1-D cohort model of wetland accretion (Swanson et al. 2014), which is based on Callaway et al. (1996), to examine SLR projections across each study site. Each cohort in the model represents the total organic and inorganic matter added to the soil column each year. WARMER calculates elevation changes relative to MSL based on projected changes in relative sea level, subsidence, inorganic sediment accumulation, aboveground and belowground organic matter productivity, compaction, and decay for a representative marsh area. Each cohort provides the mass of inorganic and organic matter accumulated at the surface in a single year as well as any subsequent belowground organic matter productivity (root growth)...
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Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid...
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We conducted vegetation surveys concurrently with elevation surveys at every fourth elevation point (~25% of the elevation points) (Figure 5). We visually assessed percent cover of all plant species within a 0.25 m2 quadrat, and recorded the average and maximum height (measured to the nearest centimeter) of each species. Total plant cover in a plot could exceed 100% due to vegetation layering. Vascular plant nomenclature generally follows Baldwin et al. (2012) and Cook et al. (2013). We located 69 tidal wetland species in 2,154 vegetation plots across the nine estuaries in the study. Common species included Carex lyngbyei, Sarcocornia perennis, Distichlis spicata, Deschampsia cespitosa, Juncus balticus and Potentilla...
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To parameterize accretion for SLR models, we measured historic rates of mineral and organic matter accumulation at each site by collecting deep soil cores with a Russian peat borer. At each site, we obtained cores in each of three vegetation zones: low, medium, and high marsh. Two replicate cores were sampled from each station for a total of 6 cores per site (except Coos Bay where 7 cores were taken). Coring locations were determined by RTK GPS elevation and tidal inundation data. Transects for core sampling were determined in ArcGIS, using a digitial elevation model and site-specific tidal datums to choose station locations below MHW (low), between MHW and MHHW (mid), and above MHHW (high). Sediment cores were...
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To assess the current topography of tidal marsh at the study sites we conducted survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) surveys between 2009 and 2014 using a Leica RX1200 Real Time Kinematic (RTK) rover (±1 cm horizontal, ±2 cm vertical accuracy; Leica Geosystems Inc., Norcross, GA; Figure 4). At sites with RTK GPS network coverage (Padilla, Port Susan, Nisqually, Siletz, Bull Island, and Bandon), rover positions were received in real time from the Leica Smartnet system via a CDMA modem (www.lecia-geosystems.com). At sites without network coverage (Skokomish, Grays Harbor, and Willapa), rover positions were received in real time from a Leica GS10 antenna base station via radio link. At sites where we used the...
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The data in this release originate from a low-altitude, aeromagnetic survey of the Centralia and Chehalis area of southwestern Washington. The survey was conducted between September 22 and October 22, 2015, by Eon Geosciences, Inc, working under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The covered region extends from the Cascade Range in the east to Willapa Bay in the west, and includes the cities of Chehalis and Centralia, Washington, and a part of Interstate 5. Total magnetic field values were acquired using a fixed-wing aircraft flown at a target elevation of 200 m above terrain. Primary flight lines were oriented east-west and spaced 400 m apart; additional tie lines were oriented north-south and spaced 4000...


    map background search result map search result map USGS Pacific Tidal Marsh Soil Core Surveys, Pacific Northwest US, 2013-14 Vegetation Surveys, All Field Sites, 2012-2014 Water Monitoring Data, All Study Sites, 2011-2015 Northern Sea Otter Aging Criteria: data Elevation Points for Eight Study Areas in Coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 Bathymetry Digital Elevation Models for Eight Study Areas in Coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 Digital Elevation Models for eight study areas in coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 WARMER model projections of sea-level rise for eight tidal marsh study areas on coastal Oregon and Washington, 2010-2110 High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey of the Centralia Area, Southwest Washington High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey of the Centralia Area, Southwest Washington WARMER model projections of sea-level rise for eight tidal marsh study areas on coastal Oregon and Washington, 2010-2110 Elevation Points for Eight Study Areas in Coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 Digital Elevation Models for eight study areas in coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 USGS Pacific Tidal Marsh Soil Core Surveys, Pacific Northwest US, 2013-14 Vegetation Surveys, All Field Sites, 2012-2014 Water Monitoring Data, All Study Sites, 2011-2015 Bathymetry Digital Elevation Models for Eight Study Areas in Coastal Oregon and Washington, 2012 Northern Sea Otter Aging Criteria: data