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Top-down and bottom-up modelling techniques have been used to answer the question of how much would it cost to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These two types of models, however, were conceived and designed through different disciplines, for different purposes and lead to very different conclusions. Recent attempts to compare the two modelling approaches illustrate the difficulty in reconciling their results. In this paper, both modelling techniques are described and discussed, and the gap between their results is explored.
This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...
This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...
Mountain streams provide important habitats for many species, but their faunas are especially vulnerable to climate change because of ectothermic physiologies and movements that are constrained to linear networks that are easily fragmented. Effectively conserving biodiversity in these systems requires accurate downscaling of climatic trends to local habitat conditions, but downscaling is difficult in complex terrains given diverse microclimates and mediation of stream heat budgets by local conditions. We compiled a stream temperature database (n = 780) for a 2500-km river network in central Idaho to assess possible trends in summer temperatures and thermal habitat for two native salmonid species from 1993 to 2006....
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This study examined long-term changes in ground height using Surface Elevation Tables (SETs). Measurements were taken in the floodplains of the Cache River at Buttonland Swamp in southern Illinois. The sites where data was collected included Crawford Tract and Eagle Pond from 2020-2022 and Deer Pond and Snake Hole from 2005-2022.
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The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic,...
Pathogens and herbivores can severely reduce host fitness, potentially leading to altered succession rates and changes in plant community composition. Thus, to predict vegetation dynamics under climate change, it is necessary to understand how plant pathogens and herbivores will respond. Pathogens and herbivores are predicted to increase under climate warming because the amount of time available for growth and reproduction will increase. To test this prediction, we used a warming experiment in which heaters were suspended over a natural montane meadow for 12 years. In the summer of 2002, we quantified damage by all the observable (aboveground) pathogens and herbivores on six of the most common plant species (Artemisia...
The current project is aimed at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models.
Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2004 reached 193 million tons. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). State emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main GHGs associated...
Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2004 reached 193 million tons. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). State emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main GHGs associated...
Biomass is a key renewable energy source expected to play an important role in US electricity production under stricter emission regulations and renewable portfolio standards. Willow energy crops are being developed in the northeast US as a fuel source for increasing biomass energy and bioproduct demands. A life cycle inventory is presented that characterizes the full cradle-to-grave energy and environmental performance of willow biomass-to-electricity. A willow biomass production model is developed using demonstration-scale field experience from New York. Scenarios are presented that mimic anticipated cofiring operations, including supplemental use of wood residues, at an existing coal-fired generating facility....
Animals respond to climatic change by adapting or by altering distributional patterns. How an animal responds is influenced by where it is positioned within its geographic range; the probability of extirpation is increased near range boundaries. Here, we examine the impact of Holocene climatic fluctuations on a small mammalian herbivore, the bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea), at five locations within south central Idaho and northwestern Utah. Previous work demonstrated that woodrats adapt to temperature shifts by altering body size. We focus here on the relationship between body mass, temperature, and location within the geographic range. Body mass is estimated by measuring fossil fecal pellets, a technique...
Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic rate (the main [CO2] response); increasing length of growing season (the main temperature response); and higher leaf-area index (the main N deposition and partly [CO2] response). Soil organic matter will increase with increasing litter input, although priming may decrease the soil C stock initially, but litter quality effects should be minimal (response...
This study uses an integrative approach to study the water-quality impacts of future global climate and land-use changes. In this study, changing land-use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climate scenarios were based on projections made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Kingdom Hadley Centre's climate model (HadCM2). The Thornthwaite water-balance model was coupled with a land-use model (L-THIA) to investigate the hydrologic effects of future climate and land-use changes in the Ohio River Basin. The land-use model is based on the Soil Conservation Service's curve-number method. It uses the curve...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality, Climatic changes, Data Visualization & Tools, Environment management, Freshwater, All tags...
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This service time enables a series of world maps for the extended period 1901-2100 to depict global trends in observed climate and projected climate change scenarios. These world maps were downloaded from the Institute for Veterinary Public Health's website here. This updated world map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification was based on temperature and precipitation observations for the This service time enables a series of world maps for the extended period 1901-2100 to depict global trends in observed climate and projected climate change scenarios. These world maps were downloaded from the Institute for Veterinary Public Health's website here. This updated world map of Köppen-Geiger...
Environmental awareness and concern is increasing, moving to the top of the political agenda. It is a major factor that will have significant implications for all operations of the oil industry. This paper discusses the impact on the oil industry of global warming, as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases, and the potential policies/strategies to limit CO2, through energy efficiency measures, fuel switching, risk reduction and environmental legislation.
The paper presents a methodology for comparing the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The methodology also allows a determination of the extent to which each technology can contribute to abatement by a specified date. The primary focus of the paper concerns carbon dioxide (C02) emissions. The analysis concludes that of seventeen different abatement options examined, the nuclear option is the most expensive, except for the marginal C02 savings achieved from advanced coal technology. A combination of energy efficiency measures and high efficiency gas-fired generation can achieve C02 savings approaching 285 million tonnes per year by year 2005. This represents...
This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...


map background search result map search result map Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah. Data Release: Peat collapse and vegetation shift after storm-driven saltwater surge in a tidal freshwater swamp, vegetation Data Release: Buttonland Swamp, SET data Data Release: Peat collapse and vegetation shift after storm-driven saltwater surge in a tidal freshwater swamp, vegetation Data Release: Buttonland Swamp, SET data Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.