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Observing and counting bats is extremely difficult. Bats hide during the day, fly in darkness, and most species in the United States (US) become inactive and inaccessible in cryptic hibernation sites for 7-8 months each year. More than 40 different species of bats occur year-round in the US, yet reasonable population estimates exist for very few. Populations of US bats face new and unprecedented threats from white-nose syndrome (WNS) and industrial wind turbines. Like WNS, wind energy development might adversely affect entire populations of bats. Species of bats dying at wind turbines in the greatest numbers rank among the most cryptic, elusive, and poorly understood. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) compose approximately...
Our objective is to improve the scientific understanding of the modes, rates, and mechanisms of carbon stabilization and losses in soils from Alaska, California, and other Western states. We focus on the biophysical and microbial mechanisms that drive carbon gains and losses, and to use our data to improve models of soil carbon cycling. This catalog supports research from several projects focused on soil carbon cycling. It encompasses multiple types of datasets including environmental, ecological, biological, isotopic, mineralogical, genomic, flux, and modeled data from water, vegetation, soil, and atmospheric matrices. The catalog will be available online and to the public. Therefore, publication of data through...
There have been increasing concerns regarding the decline in moose numbers along the southern range of their North American distribution. This has prompted varied research efforts to determine the factors contributing to the reduced local populations. Although heat stress from increasing temperatures could be a potential factor for declining populations in Minnesota, temperature increases have also occurred in New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut where populations have been expanding in recent years. Alternatively, indirect climate effects from warmer temperatures may be playing a role, such as increased prevalence of parasites (e.g., brainworm, winter tick) to levels lethal to moose. Additionally, factors such...
Current soil enzyme methods measure potential enzyme activities, which are indicative of overall enzyme concentrations. However, they do not provide insight in the actual rates of enzymatically catalyzed reactions under natural in situ conditions. The objectives of this review are to (1) clarify what is being measured by current standard soil enzymology methods; (2) present an overview of the factors that control in situ activities of soil enzymes; and (3) evaluate how emerging technologies and modeling approaches could enhance our understanding of in situ extracellular enzyme activity (EEA). Genomic studies targeting functional genes coding for extracellular enzymes can identify the genetic potential of microbial...

map background search result map search result map Genomic Determination of Hoary Bat Population History and Trend Genomic Determination of Hoary Bat Population History and Trend