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We examined patterns of herbivory in the dioecious desert shrub, Ephedra trifurca (Ephedraceae), along a small watershed in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. We documented significant (p=0.002) sexual dimorphism in densities of Lasioptera ephedrae and L. ephedricola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), with male E. trifurca supporting higher densities than did females. Densities of gall midges varied significantly (p<0.001) among="" four="" sample="" populations="" of="">E. trifurca arrayed along the watershed and exhibited an inverse gradient with elevation. There was also a significant (p=0.006) sex-by-site interaction such that the degree of intersexual variation in gall densities decreased down the watershed. Variation in...