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There are unconventional fuels that may serve as near term major replacements for conventional mineral oil and natural gas. These include fuels from oil shale and bitumen, liquid fuels from coal, methane from methane hydrates, biofuels and the secondary fuel hydrogen. Here, these fuels will be reviewed as to their presumable stocks and life cycle wastes, emissions and inputs of natural resources. The unconventional fuels are usually characterized by a relatively poor source-to-burner energy efficiency when compared with current conventional mineral oil and gas. Apart from some varieties of hydrogen and biofuel, their life cycles are characterized by relatively large water inputs, emissions, and wastes. The unconventional...
Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.
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This dataset was created from data provided by the USDA Forest Service MAPSS team at the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The National Center for Conservation Science and Policy calculated the mean value for the 2035-2045 period and clipped the file to the region surrounding San luis Obispo County, California. The data are the projected change in mean temperatures for August produced by the CSIRO model at 0.8 degree resolution (approximately 8 km). Units are degrees Celsius.
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This dataset is a component of a complete package of products from the Connect the Connecticut project. Connect the Connecticut is a collaborative effort to identify shared priorities for conserving the Connecticut River Watershed for future generations, considering the value of fish and wildlife species and the natural ecosystems they inhabit. Click here to download the full data package, including all documentation.This dataset represents the climate response index for Eastern Meadowlark. Climate response is one of several different measures of landscape capability that reflect different decisions (or assumptions) regarding how to incorporate current versus future land use and climate changes. The climate response...
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This dataset is a component of a complete package of products from the Connect the Connecticut project. Connect the Connecticut is a collaborative effort to identify shared priorities for conserving the Connecticut River Watershed for future generations, considering the value of fish and wildlife species and the natural ecosystems they inhabit. Click here to download the full data package, including all documentation.This dataset represents the climate response index for Moose. Climate response is one of several different measures of landscape capability that reflect different decisions (or assumptions) regarding how to incorporate current versus future land use and climate changes. The climate response index is...
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This map document was created for use in the BLM NGP Rapid Ecoregional Assessment. This map contains the data layers and layout for the change in temperature (September-October) due to climate change. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data.
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This dataset contains the future renewable energy risk data layer, which was derived from solar and wind energy data (NREL) across the ecoregion. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data.
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This dataset was developed by the USGS for use in regional climate simulation analyses. These data were applied in the BLM REA analysis for the NGP ecoregion. For more information pertaining to these data and climate modeling, please refer to http://regclim.coas.oregonstate.edu/. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data.
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Olive-Sided Flycatcher current distribution, change in growing season, current, near-term and long-term future status. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data. The BLM should be cited as the data source...
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This map shows all the places conservation elements. Some of the places included exhibit high biodiversity or ecological and cultural value. This map also shows other managed areas from the Protected Areas Database, as well as those that are excluded. Associated input datasets are also included; they relate to biodiversity, special areas, and development. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics...
In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fl uid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fl uid application, 56% of the trees within the fl uid application area were dead. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. was the tree species with the highest mortality, and Acer rubrum L. was the least aff ected, although all tree species present on the site showed damage symptoms and mortality. Surface soils (0–10 cm) were sampled in July and October 2008, June and October 2009,...
The increased urgency of dealing with mitigation of the looming climate change has sparked renewed interest in the nuclear energy option. There exists a substantial stream of research on the amount of embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with nuclear generated electricity. While conventional fossil fuelled power plants cause emissions almost exclusively from the plant site, the majority of greenhouse gas emissions in the nuclear fuel cycle are caused in processing stages upstream and downstream from the plant. This paper distils the findings from a comprehensive literature review of energy and greenhouse gas emissions in the nuclear fuel cycle and determines some of the causes for the widely varying...
Because of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels and the corresponding release of carbon to the environment, the global energy future is complex. Some of the consequences may be politically and economically disruptive, and expensive to remedy. For the next several centuries, fuel requirements will increase with population, land use, and ecosystem degradation. Current or projected levels of aggregated energy resource use will not sustain civilization as we know it beyond a few more generations. At the same time, issues of energy security, reliability, sustainability, recoverability, and safety need attention. We supply a top-down, qualitative model—the surety model—to balance expenditures of limited resources...
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This dataset is a component of a complete package of products from the Connect the Connecticut project. Connect the Connecticut is a collaborative effort to identify shared priorities for conserving the Connecticut River Watershed for future generations, considering the value of fish and wildlife species and the natural ecosystems they inhabit. Click here to download the full data package, including all documentation.This dataset represents the climate response index for Blackpoll Warbler. Climate response is one of several different measures of landscape capability that reflect different decisions (or assumptions) regarding how to incorporate current versus future land use and climate changes. The climate response...
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This dataset is a component of a complete package of products from the Connect the Connecticut project. Connect the Connecticut is a collaborative effort to identify shared priorities for conserving the Connecticut River Watershed for future generations, considering the value of fish and wildlife species and the natural ecosystems they inhabit. Click here to download the full data package, including all documentation.This dataset represents the climate response index for Prairie Warbler. Climate response is one of several different measures of landscape capability that reflect different decisions (or assumptions) regarding how to incorporate current versus future land use and climate changes. The climate response...
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Efforts to model and predict long-term variations in climate-based on scientific understanding of climatological processes have grown rapidly in their sophistication to the point that models can be used to develop reasonable expectations of regional climate change. This is important because our ability to assess the potential consequences of a changing climate for particular ecosystems or regions depends on having realistic expectations about the kinds and severity of change to which a region may be exposed.The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) is a collaborative climate modeling research effort coordinated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This is the most recent phase...
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This dataset contains the future oil production risk data layer, which was derived from oil and gas data (EPCA) across the ecoregion. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data.
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This map document was created for use in the BLM MIR Rapid Ecoregional Assessment. This map contains the data layers and layout for the change in temperature (July-August) due to climate change. This dataset was developed by the USGS for use in regional climate simulation analyses. These data were applied in the BLM REA analysis for the MIR ecoregion. For more information pertaining to these data and climate modeling, please refer to http://regclim.coas.oregonstate.edu/. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit...
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This dataset contains the future natural gas risk data layer, which was derived from oil and gas data (EPCA) across the ecoregion. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data.
This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...


map background search result map search result map Change in Average August Temperature CSIRO 2035-2045 Climate Response for Blackpoll Warbler, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Moose, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Prairie Warbler, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Eastern Meadowlark, 2080, CT River Watershed CMIP5 Future Average Annual Temperature 2031-2060 BLM REA MIR 2011 Figure C-1-4 Future Solar Energy Development Risk BLM REA MIR 2011 Temperature July-August BLM REA NWP 2011 Future Natural Gas Extraction Potential for the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion BLM REA NWP 2011 Temperature September to October BLM REA NWP 2011 Temperature March and April BLM REA NWP 2011 Future Renewable Energy Potential for the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion BLM REA YKL 2011 Olive-Sided Flycatcher current distribution, change growing season, current, near-term, long-term future status BLM REA MBR 2010 Places Change in Average August Temperature CSIRO 2035-2045 Climate Response for Blackpoll Warbler, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Moose, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Prairie Warbler, 2080, CT River Watershed Climate Response for Eastern Meadowlark, 2080, CT River Watershed BLM REA MBR 2010 Places CMIP5 Future Average Annual Temperature 2031-2060 BLM REA MIR 2011 Temperature July-August BLM REA MIR 2011 Figure C-1-4 Future Solar Energy Development Risk BLM REA NWP 2011 Future Natural Gas Extraction Potential for the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion BLM REA NWP 2011 Temperature September to October BLM REA NWP 2011 Temperature March and April BLM REA NWP 2011 Future Renewable Energy Potential for the Northwestern Plains Ecoregion BLM REA YKL 2011 Olive-Sided Flycatcher current distribution, change growing season, current, near-term, long-term future status