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Biomass remains a key energy source for several billion people living in developing countries, and the production of liquid biofuels for transportation is growing rapidly. However, both traditional biomass energy and crop-based biofuels technologies have negative environmental and social impacts. The overall research challenge for bioenergy is to develop the technologies to produce useful products at low costs while minimizing the use of scarce resources such as arable land and water. This requires substantial advancements in modern biomass power generation and the success of liquid biofuel technologies that permit the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks or possibly algae. With such technologies, biomass resources...
The future challenges for “clean coal technologies”: Joining efficiency increase and pollutant emission control
There are unconventional fuels that may serve as near term major replacements for conventional mineral oil and natural gas. These include fuels from oil shale and bitumen, liquid fuels from coal, methane from methane hydrates, biofuels and the secondary fuel hydrogen. Here, these fuels will be reviewed as to their presumable stocks and life cycle wastes, emissions and inputs of natural resources. The unconventional fuels are usually characterized by a relatively poor source-to-burner energy efficiency when compared with current conventional mineral oil and gas. Apart from some varieties of hydrogen and biofuel, their life cycles are characterized by relatively large water inputs, emissions, and wastes. The unconventional...
The pricing of particular fuels, such as electricity, gas and oil, should be considered in terms of the development of pricing policies for the energy sector as a whole. The pursuit of an efficient allocation of resources will require that energy prices are related to their marginal costs. This simple prescription may have to be modified to allow for the achievement of other objectives, such as profitability and income distribution.
Degradation of weathered diesel fuel by microorganisms from a contaminated aquifer in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms
Iodine-129 and plutonium isotopes in Arctic kelp as historical indicators of transport of nuclear fuel-reprocessing wastes from mid-to-high latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean
Degradation rates of low molecular weight PAH correlate with sediment TOC in marine subtidal sediments
Incorporation of biodegradability concerns into a site evaluation protocol for application of intrinsic remediation
Photocatalytic degradation of methyl-tert-butyl ether in TiO sub(2) slurries: A proposed reaction scheme
Enhanced hydrogen production by a marine photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter marinus, immobilized onto light-diffusing optical fibers