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Mass wasting and channel incision are widespread in the Nemadji River watershed of eastern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. While much of this is a natural response to glacial rebound, sediment coring and tree ring data suggest that land use has also influenced these erosional processes. We characterized land use, inventoried mass wasting, surveyed stream channels and collected discharge data along segments of five streams in the Nemadji River watershed. Due to natural relief in this region, wetlands and agricultural lands are concentrated in the flatter terrain of the uplands of the Nemadji watershed, while forestland (coniferous or deciduous) is concentrated in the deeply incised (50–200% slope) stream valleys....
Quaking aspen cover 3.3 million hectares in the Upper Colorado River Basin, and these areas are gradually converting to conifer forest by the natural process of ecological succession. This change is being hastened by forest managment practices that reduce fires, destroy pests, or otherwise prevent the natural processes that previously caused conifer areas to revert to the subclimax aspen. The hydrologic consequence has been forecast to cause a runoff reduction in the Colorado River as large as one million acre-feet annually, a major blow to water availability in the Lower Basin. Understanding and dealing with the problems requires quantitative comparision of the evaportranspiration rates of conifer and aspen forests...