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Stable isotope analysis of fishes is often performed using muscle or organ tissues that require sacrificing animals. Non-lethal sampling provides an alternative for evaluating isotopic composition for species of concern or individuals of exceptional value. Stable isotope values of white muscle (lethal) were compared with those from fins and scales (non-lethal) in walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), from multiple systems, size classes and across a range of isotopic values. Isotopic variability was also compared among populations to determine the potential of non-lethal tissues for diet-variability analyses. Muscle-derived isotope values were enriched compared with fins and depleted relative to scales. A split-sample...
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Young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, were evaluated in streams from eight catchments with two contrasting land uses to determine their use of microhabitats under a variety of stream conditions. Step-wise discriminant function analyses revealed patterns of habitat use by discriminating used from available microhabitat conditions. Velocity was significant in 88% of streams sampled, whereas depth was significant in only the smallest stream in the forest-dominated catchments and 75% of stream segments located in pasture-dominated catchments. Mean velocities used by YOY bass were lower than available velocities, and mean depths used were greater than mean availability in all cases....
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Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) use of installed habitat structure was evaluated in a large Midwestern USA reservoir to determine whether or not these structures were used in similar proportion to natural habitats. Seventy largemouth bass (>380 mm total length) were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and a subset was relocated monthly during day and night for one year. The top habitat selection models (based on Akaike's information criterion) suggest largemouth bass select 2–4 m depths during night and 4–7 m during day, whereas littoral structure selection was similar across diel periods. Largemouth bass selected boat docks at twice the rate of other structures. Installed woody structure...
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Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower...
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Fisheries research and management in North America have focused largely on sport fishes, but native non-game fishes have attracted increased attention due to their declines. The Warmwater Stream Assessment (WSA) was developed to evaluate simultaneously both fish and habitat in Wyoming streams by a process that includes three major components: (1) stream-reach selection and accumulation of existing information, (2) fish and habitat sampling and (3) summarisation and evaluation of fish and habitat information. Fish are sampled by electric fishing or seining and habitat is measured at reach and channel-unit (i.e. pool, run, riffle, side channel, or backwater) scales. Fish and habitat data are subsequently summarised...
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The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass, (Morone saxatilis) Walbaum, based on unpublished stomach content data from 916 fish collected between 1955 and 1959 was described. The diet in the late 1950s, quantified using an index of relative importance (IRI), was dominated by Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe. Atlantic menhaden (66%) and bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli Valenciennes, (19%) had the highest IRI value overall. Small striped bass ( <600 mm total length) ate predominantly bay anchovy (IRI = 67%). Large striped bass (??? 600 mm total length) ate predominantly Atlantic menhaden (IRI = 93%). Since 1990 small striped bass rely more on invertebrate prey and larger fish now rely more on small pelagic...
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Condition indices are often used as surrogates of fish health, growth, and feeding and to compare ecological well-being among fish populations. In an effort to identify easily measured indices, growth and food consumption were compared with gonadal-somatic index, liver-somatic index (LSI), fat-somatic index and relative weight (Wr) for ages 1-3 walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), in Lake Erie from 1986 to 1988. The LSI and Wr were significantly correlated with growth rate or food consumption, but correlations were too small to be considered biologically meaningful. Furthermore, no consistent relationships between condition indices and growth or consumption were found among combinations of fish age and season. None...
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Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries...
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Movements by adult cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson), were assessed from autumn to summer in the Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, USA by radio telemetry. Adult cutthroat trout were captured during September and October 2005 in the main stem of the Salt River, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked through to August 2006. Adult cutthroat trout were relatively sedentary and resided primarily in pools from October to March, but their movement rates increased during April. Higher movement rates were observed among tagged fish during May and early June. Among 43 fish residing in the Salt River during April 2006, 44% remained in the river, 37% moved into mountain tributaries and...
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Young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacep??de, were evaluated in streams from eight catchments with two contrasting land uses to determine their use of microhabitats under a variety of stream conditions. Step-wise discriminant function analyses revealed patterns of habitat use by discriminating used from available microhabitat conditions. Velocity was significant in 88% of streams sampled, whereas depth was significant in only the smallest stream in the forest-dominated catchments and 75% of stream segments located in pasture-dominated catchments. Mean velocities used by YOY bass were lower than available velocities, and mean depths used were greater than mean availability in all cases....
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The effectiveness of an acoustic barrier to deter the movement of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) and bighead carp, H. nobilis (Richardson) was evaluated. A pond (10 m × 5 m × 1.2 m) was divided in half by a concrete-block barrier with a channel (1 m across) allowing fish access to each side. Underwater speakers were placed on each side of the barrier opening, and an outboard motor noise (broadband sound; 0.06–10 kHz) was broadcast to repel carp that approached within 1 m of the channel. Broadband sound was effective at reducing the number of successful crossings in schools of silver carp, bighead carp and a combined school. Repulsion rates were 82.5% (silver carp), 93.7% (bighead carp) and...
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Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish <400 mm. Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or)...
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A bioenergetic model was used to predict the potential effects of feeding cessation caused by catch-and-release capture and a reduction in feeding efficiency from hooking injuries on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), growth in southwest Alaska, USA. Simulations indicated that a 1-day feeding cessation for a rainbow trout captured one to two times during summer months resulted in deviations from expected growth of −3% to −15%. To represent debilitating hooking injuries, the proportion of the maximum feeding potential was decreased by 5–50% resulting in deviations from expected growth of −9% to −164%. Simulated growth effects were most prominent from captures during months when salmon eggs and flesh constituted...
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Although several studies have focused on how well anglers identify species using replicas and pictures, there has been no study assessing the confidence that can be placed in angler's ability to identify recreationally important fish. Understanding factors associated with low self-confidence will be useful in tailoring education programmes to improve self-confidence in identifying common species. The purposes of this assessment were to quantify the confidence of recreational anglers to identify 13 commonly encountered warm water fish species and to relate self-confidence to species availability and angler experience. Significant variation was observed in anglers self-confidence among species and levels of self-declared...
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Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2ÔÇÉmonth period...
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Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995-1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle),...
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The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden,...
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Catch rate (catch per hour) was examined for age-0 and age-1 yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), captured in bottom trawls from 1991 to 2005 in western Lake Erie: (1) to examine variation of catch rate among years, seasons, diel periods and their interactions; and (2) to determine whether sampling during particular diel periods improved the management value of CPH data used in models to project abundance of age-2 yellow perch. Catch rate varied with year, season and the diel period during which sampling was conducted as well as by the interaction between year and season. Indices of abundance of age-0 and age-1 yellow perch estimated from night samples typically produced better fitting models and lower estimates...
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A critical component of a species reintroduction is assessment of contemporary habitat suitability. The robust redhorse, Moxostoma robustum (Cope), is an imperilled catostomid that occupies a restricted range in the south-eastern USA. A remnant population persists downstream of Blewett Falls Dam, the terminal dam in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina. Reintroduction upstream of Blewett Falls Dam may promote long-term survival of this population. Tillery Dam is the next hydroelectric facility upstream, which includes a 30 rkm lotic reach. Habitat suitability indices developed in the Pee Dee River were applied to model suitable habitat for proposed minimum flows downstream of Tillery Dam. Modelling results indicate...