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The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Ground water provides much of the water supply for residents of Tooele Valley (fig. 1). The protection, development, and wise management of ground-water resources are important to support community growth and to ensure the continued availability of ground water for all users.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, Tooele City, Grantsville City, the U.S. Army, and the State of Utah, has been studying the water resources of Tooele Valley since 1913 to define the quality and amount of water in the principal ground-water aquifers. The most recent studies in the 1990s have provided new insights into the hydrology of the valley. This fact sheet presents a synopsis of the recent studies and describes...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Ground water is an important freshwater source for domestic and livestock uses in southeastern Utah because of the arid climate and unavailability of surface water from the San Juan River. The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the southeastern corner of Utah (fig. 1). Precipitation on mountainous areas north, south, and east of the study area (fig. 2) seeps into the Navajo and overlying aquifers where the sandstones that contain the aquifers are exposed at the surface along mountain flanks. The ground water then moves slowly away from the mountainous areas toward the area of lowest elevation 109°30' in the region, the San Juan River. The ground water reappears at land surface where it discharges as...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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The Souris River Basin is a 61,000 square kilometer basin in the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the state of North Dakota. Record setting rains in May and June of 2011 led to record flooding with peak annual streamflow values (762 cubic meters per second [m3/s]) more than twice that of any previously recorded peak streamflow and more than five times the estimated 100 year postregulation streamflow (142 m3/s) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging station above Minot, North Dakota. Upstream from Minot, N. Dak., the Souris River is regulated by three reservoirs in Saskatchewan (Rafferty, Boundary, and Alameda) and Lake Darling in North Dakota. During the 2011 flood, the city of Minot, N....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Landsat represents the world’s longest continuously acquired collection of space-based land remote sensing data. The Landsat Project is a joint initiative of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designed to gather Earth resource data from space. NASA developed and launched the spacecrafts, while the USGS handles the operations, maintenance, and management of all ground data reception, processing, archiving, product generation, and distribution.Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth’s surface for more than thirty years. Landsat’s Global Survey Mission is to repeatedly capture images of the Earth’s land mass, coastal boundaries, and coral...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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In 1960, Eugene Shoemaker and a small team of other scientists founded the field of astrogeology to develop tools and methods for astronauts studying the geology of the Moon and other planetary bodies. Subsequently, in 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Astrogeology was established in Menlo Park, California. In 1963, the Branch moved to Flagstaff, Arizona, to be closer to the young lava flows of the San Francisco Volcanic Field and Meteor Crater, the best preserved impact crater in the world. These geologic features of northern Arizona were considered good analogs for the Moon and other planetary bodies and valuable for geologic studies and astronaut field training. From its Flagstaff campus, the USGS has...
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water (Burow and Belitz, 2014). The Rio Grande aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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A multibeam echosounder is a type of sound navigation and ranging device that uses sound waves to “see” through even murky waters. Unlike a single beam echosounder (also known as a depth sounder or fathometer) that releases a single sound pulse in a single, narrow beam and “listens” for the return echo, a multibeam system emits a multidirectional radial beam to obtain information within a fan-shaped swath. The timing and direction of the returning sound waves provide detailed information on the depth of water and the shape of the river channel, lake bottom, or any underwater features of interest. This information has been used by the U.S. Geological Survey to efficiently generate high-resolution maps of river and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Changes in priorities for forest management on federal and state lands in the Pacific Northwest have raised many questions about the best ways to manage young-forest stands, riparian areas, and forest landscapes. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) Program draws together scientists and managers from the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Forestry, and Oregon State University to find science-based answers to these questions. Managers, researchers, and decisionmakers, working within the CFER program, are helping develop and disseminate the knowledge needed to carry out ecosystem-based management successfully in the Pacific Northwest.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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The Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-123), was signed by the President on February 9, 2018. This funding provided $42.2 million to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for equipment repair and replacement, high-resolution elevation data collection in both hurricane- and wildfire-impacted areas, and scientific studies and assessments that will support recovery and rebuilding decisions in the wake of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria and the California Wildfires.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Abandoned and unrecorded wells may act as conduits for the contamination of groundwater supplies by oil field brines and other pollutants. The casings of abandoned wells eventually develop leaks, which, if not properly plugged, can allow pollutants to reach freshwater aquifers that supply drinking water. Sources of pollutants include brine ponds, landfill sites, agricultural activities, industrial activities, illegal disposal sites, or accidental spills. The problem is particularly acute in regions where there are old petroleum fields or where water wells have been extensively used for agricultural irrigation. Even urban areas can contain wells that were abandoned and concealed during development. Carefully designed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Water samples collected in 1995 from 57 monitoring wells (48 shallow and 9 deep) in the fluvial aquifers of the White River Basin were analyzed for radon. Radon concentrations in the shallow wells ranged from 140 to 1,600 pCi/L (picocuries per liter); the median concentration was 420 pCi/L. In comparison, analyses of the samples from the nine deep wells indicate that radon concentrations decrease with depth within the fluvial aquifers; the median concentration was 210 pCi/L. No areal trends in radon concentrations are evident in the water of the shallow fluvial aquifers of the basin
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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As a Federal science agency within the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects and disseminates streamflow stage and discharge information along with other types of water information as a major part of its Water mission area. Data collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as “streamgages”) are used for a variety of purposes including flood warning, engineering design, management of water resources, and scientific research.During flood events, the need for timely, accurate, and complete streamflow data is underscored because these data are relied on by local, State, and Federal emergency management personnel for flood response purposes. For example, the National...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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How much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies modest declines in rainfall, accompanied by increases in air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady in Senegal over the past 20 years but are 15 percent below the 1920-1969 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.9° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * Cereal yields are low but have been improving. * The amount of farmland per person is low and declining rapidly. * Current population and agriculture trends could lead to a 30-percent...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying seven watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings. Study objectives Understand the links between the sources of water and agricultural chemicals (nutrients and pesticides) and their behavior and transport through the environment...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet


map background search result map search result map A climate trend analysis of Senegal Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014 A climate trend analysis of Senegal Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014