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The NRP had its beginnings in the late 1950's. Since that time, the program has grown to encompass a broad spectrum of scientific investigations. The sciences of hydrology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, ecology, biology, geology, and engineering are used to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the availability, movement, and quality of the Nation's water resources. Results of NRP's long-term research investigations often lead to the development of new concepts, techniques, and approaches that are applicable not only to the solution of current water problems, but also to future issues that may affect the Nation's water resources. Basic tools of hydrology that have been developed by the...
Categories: Project; Types: ScienceBase Project; Tags: Acid Mine Drainage, Aquatic Habitat, Arid Land Hydrology, Carbon Cycle, Contaminant Reactions and Transport, All tags...
Evapotranspiration rates and the ground water component of evapotranspiration at a site in Colorado's San Luis Valley that is dominated by shrubby phreatophytes (greasewood and rabbitbrush) were compared before and after a water table drawdown. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates at the site were first measured in 1985–1987 (pre-drawdown) when the mean water table depth was 0.92 m. Regional ground water pumping has since lowered the water table by 1.58 m, to a mean of 2.50 m. We measured ET at the same site in 1999–2003 (post-drawdown), and assessed physical and biological factors affecting the response of ET to water table drawdown. Vegetation changed markedly from the pre-drawdown to the post-drawdown period as phreatophytic...
Evapotranspiration determined using the energy-budget method at a semi-permanent prairie-pothole wetland in east-central North Dakota, USA was compared with 12 other commonly used methods. The Priestley-Taylor and deBruin-Keijman methods compared best with the energy-budget values; mean differences were less than 0.1 mm d−1, and standard deviations were less than 0.3 mm d−1. Both methods require measurement of air temperature, net radiation, and heat storage in the wetland water. The Penman, Jensen-Haise, and Brutsaert-Stricker methods provided the next-best values for evapotranspiration relative to the energy-budget method. The mass-transfer, deBruin, and Stephens-Stewart methods provided the worst comparisons;...
In dryland ecosystems, the timing and magnitude of precipitation pulses drive many key ecological processes, notably soil water availability for plants and soil microbiota. Plant available water has frequently been viewed simply as incoming precipitation, yet processes at larger scales drive precipitation pulses, and the subsequent transformation of precipitation pulses to plant available water are complex. We provide an overview of the factors that influence the spatial and temporal availability of water to plants and soil biota using examples from western USA drylands. Large spatial- and temporal-scale drivers of regional precipitation patterns include the position of the jet streams and frontal boundaries, the...
Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar....
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A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model was developed to estimate annual recharge and evapotranspiration (ET) for Fauquier County, Virginia, for the period 1996 through 2015. The model was developed as part of a study to assess groundwater availability in the fractured-rock aquifers underlying Fauquier County. The model is documented in the associated report, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2019-5056. The model was calibrated by comparing annual base-flow estimates from the hydrograph separation technique PART to annual recharge estimates from the SWB model for available years of streamflow record at two sites (01643700 and 01656000) within the model area. Selected SWB model parameters were...
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The data set consists of evapotranspiration measurements made at the USGS Dead River forested wetland climate station beginning November 21, 2009 and ending February 29, 2016. Annual ET rates corrected to a near-surface energy-budget varied from 1448 mm (2012) to 1614 mm (2010). The eddy-covariance method was used, with high-frequency sensors installed above the forest canopy to measure sensible and latent heat fluxes. Ancillary meteorological data are also included in the data set: net radiation, soil temperature and moisture, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, and ground-water levels. Data were collected at 30-minute resolution, with evapotranspiration corrected to the near-surface...
Summary Human activities have historically affected hydrology in the upper Midwestern United States, specifically through the conversion of forests and prairie grasslands to agricultural uses. The hydrologic impacts of land-use change due to settlement on the water balance of three Great Lakes states: Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan were analyzed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) large-scale hydrology model, and changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation types were studied. Point model simulations demonstrated that the VIC model simulated changes in average annual and monthly evapotranspiration (ET) and total runoff response were in the same direction and had similar magnitudes to values from...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The boundary encompasses an approximate 112,000 square-kilometer region and was based on a map of regional potential developed by Bedinger and Harrill (2004). Where possible, the amount of lateral flow across the segments of the DVRFS model boundary from (or to) the contributing...
Tags: Amargosa Desert, Ash Meadows, California, California Valley, Chicago Valley, All tags...
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The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for Hawaii Island, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of predevelopment conditions (1916-83 rainfall and 1870 land cover), as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5164. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model-subarea data set, consisting of 467,805 subareas (polygons), was generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets. Spatial datasets...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. The digital data set delineates the outer boundary of each major discharge area evaluated as part of the study. These areas were used to refine estimates of ground-water discharge throughout the Death Valley regional flow system. As delineated, boundaries include all phreatophytic vegetation and moist soil areas within a discharge area. The boundaries were used to focus efforts associated with classifying the different vegetation...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. The data in this release are associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report: Snyder, D.T., Risley, J.C., and Haynes, J.V., 2012, Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1199, 20 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1199
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. The data in this release are associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report: Snyder, D.T., Risley, J.C., and Haynes, J.V., 2012, Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1199, 20 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1199
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. The data in this release are associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report: Snyder, D.T., Risley, J.C., and Haynes, J.V., 2012, Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1199, 20 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1199
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A soil-water balance model (SWB) was developed to estimate potential recharge and irrigation water demand from the groundwater flow system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina for the period 1895 through 2010. This SWB model executable code detailed in the report SWB—A Modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance Code for Estimating Groundwater Recharge; Chapter 31 of Section A, Groundwater, of Book 6, Modeling Techniques By S.M. Westenbroek, V.A. Kelson,W.R. Dripps,R.J. Hunt, and K.R. Bradbury (https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm6-a31/) The SWB model was not calibrated; however, various water budget components from the model output compared reasonably well with other estimates including irrigation...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. The water-budget-components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009" report (Stanton and others, 2011). Data were collected and synthesized from existing climate models including the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) (Daly and others, 1994), and the Snow accumulation and...
This data release includes a polygon shapefile of grid cells attributed with values representing the simulated base-flow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater-storage depletions as a percentage of hypothetical well pumpage for the 2011-2060 time period. Depletions were simulated by the Phase-Three Elkhorn-Loup Model (ELM), constructed using MODFLOW-NWT (Niswonger and others, 2011). Each polygon represents one model grid cell, with pumping specified from either layer one or layer two of the model. All values are estimates and approximations. The phase three ELM simulated the High Plains aquifer in north-central Nebraska from predevelopment (pre-1895) through 2060 (Flynn and Stanton, 2018). The simulation was calibrated...
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Estimation of irrigation water use provides essential information for the management and conservation of agricultural water resources. The blue water evapotranspiration (BWET) raster dataset at 30-meter resolution is created to estimate agricultural irrigation water consumption. The dataset contains seasonal total (1 May to 30 September) BWET time series (1986 – 2020) for the croplands across the U.S. High Plains aquifer region. The BWET estimates are generated by integrating an energy-balance ET model (Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model) and a water-balance ET model (Vegetation ET model). BWET in croplands reflects crop consumptive use of irrigation water extracted from surface water and groundwater...
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These data were compiled for evaluating plant water use, or river-reach level evapotranspiration (ET) data, in the riparian corridor of the Colorado River delta as specified under Minute 319 of the 1944 Water Treaty. Additionally, these data were compiled for evaluating restoration-level data in Reach 2 and Reach 4, as specified under Minute 323 of the 1944 Water Treaty. Objectives of our study were to measure the peak growing season evapotranspiration (ET) for the average of months in summer-fall (May to October) for the seven reaches, for the full riparian corridor, and for four restoration sites, from 2013 through 2022. The seven reach areas from the Northerly International Boundary (NIB) to the end of the delta...
Tags: 1944 Water Treaty, Arizona, Botany, Colorado River, Colorado River delta, All tags...


map background search result map search result map 1. Evapotranspiration (ET) at Dead River forested wetland site, 30-minute data, Hillsborough County, Florida, December 2009 - February 2016 Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model data sets for Fauquier County, Virginia, 1996 - 2015 Percentage of Hypothetical Well Pumpage Causing Depletions to Simulated Base Flow, Evapotranspiration, and Groundwater Storage in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, 2011 through 2060 Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California Soil-Water Balance model datasets used to estimate groundwater recharge in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, 1895-2010 DS-777 Average Annual Potential Evapotranspiration, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the National Weather Service (NWS) Snow Accumulation and Ablation (SNOW-17) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming Outer boundary of major discharge areas of Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for April 2006 Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for October 2004 Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Total Evapotranspiration Map for April to October 2006 Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 1870 land cover Remotely-sensed observations of restoration sites of the riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta in Mexico, 2013-2022 Seasonal Blue Water Evapotranspiration 1986 – 2020 for the Croplands in the High Plains Aquifer Region 1. Evapotranspiration (ET) at Dead River forested wetland site, 30-minute data, Hillsborough County, Florida, December 2009 - February 2016 Remotely-sensed observations of restoration sites of the riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta in Mexico, 2013-2022 Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model data sets for Fauquier County, Virginia, 1996 - 2015 Mean annual water-budget components for Hawaii Island, Hawaii, for predevelopment conditions, 1916-83 rainfall and 1870 land cover Outer boundary of major discharge areas of Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for April 2006 Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Evapotranspiration Map for October 2004 Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Total Evapotranspiration Map for April to October 2006 Percentage of Hypothetical Well Pumpage Causing Depletions to Simulated Base Flow, Evapotranspiration, and Groundwater Storage in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, 2011 through 2060 Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California Seasonal Blue Water Evapotranspiration 1986 – 2020 for the Croplands in the High Plains Aquifer Region Soil-Water Balance model datasets used to estimate groundwater recharge in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, 1895-2010 DS-777 Average Annual Potential Evapotranspiration, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the National Weather Service (NWS) Snow Accumulation and Ablation (SNOW-17) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming