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In response to the increasing global demand for energy, on exploration and development are expanding into frontier areas of the Arctic, where slow-growing tundra vegetation and the underlying permafrost Soils are Very sensitive to disturbance. The creation of vehicle trails on the tundra from seismic exploration for on has accelerated in the past decade, and the cumulative impact represents a geographic footprint that covers a greater extent of Alaska's North Slope tundra than all other direct human impacts combined. Seismic exploration for on and gas was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA, in the winters of 1984 and 1985. This study documents recovery Of vegetation...
Using interviews and participant observation at Pacific Northwest sustainable farming operations, this article analyzes the complex ways that class privileges and labor practices impact the social sustainability of sustainable agriculture. While the farmers in this study were highly aware of and reflexive about the class politics of sustainable agriculture, they also participated in a classed system that restricts access to sustainable farming as an occupation even as it exploits the labor of the farmer in order to regulate prices. In particular, the farmers in the study benefited from educational privileges and oftenlucrative off-farm income, they expressed a desire to make their goods more accessible and affordable...