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In response to the increasing global demand for energy, on exploration and development are expanding into frontier areas of the Arctic, where slow-growing tundra vegetation and the underlying permafrost Soils are Very sensitive to disturbance. The creation of vehicle trails on the tundra from seismic exploration for on has accelerated in the past decade, and the cumulative impact represents a geographic footprint that covers a greater extent of Alaska's North Slope tundra than all other direct human impacts combined. Seismic exploration for on and gas was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA, in the winters of 1984 and 1985. This study documents recovery Of vegetation...
Using interviews and participant observation at Pacific Northwest sustainable farming operations, this article analyzes the complex ways that class privileges and labor practices impact the social sustainability of sustainable agriculture. While the farmers in this study were highly aware of and reflexive about the class politics of sustainable agriculture, they also participated in a classed system that restricts access to sustainable farming as an occupation even as it exploits the labor of the farmer in order to regulate prices. In particular, the farmers in the study benefited from educational privileges and oftenlucrative off-farm income, they expressed a desire to make their goods more accessible and affordable...
Present woodfuel usage in Britain is negligible. Historically, Britain has been fortunate in having abundant coal, oil and gas. At an EU level, biomass is seen as an important element of energy, environment and agriculture/forestry policy. In the European context, biomass is taken to include agricultural and industrial wastes in addition to forest woodfuel, and it is regarded as a potential source of heat, fuels and electricity. In the UK, energy policy as a whole is based on four considerations--environment, energy reliability and security, affordability for the poorest in society and competitive pricing for businesses, industries and households. Within UK policy, the dominant driver for greater use of biomass...
Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (E.U.) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO 2. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the E.U. as a whole.
Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source in Europe. Europe accounted for 69% of the total installed capacity and 70% of the annual market growth during 2005. The wind energy sector would have preferred a strengthening of existing, successful, legislation, and is concerned that a new legislative package could take years to adopt at a crucial time in the development of large scale wind power. The main objective of this study is to summarize the strategies and activities of the EU countries toward sustainable development goals. In addition, this paper describes the environmental and economic impacts of wind power technology in the EU.
Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source in Europe. Europe accounted for 69% of the total installed capacity and 70% of the annual market growth during 2005. The wind energy sector would have preferred a strengthening of existing, successful, legislation, and is concerned that a new legislative package could take years to adopt at a crucial time in the development of large scale wind power. The main objective of this study is to summarize the strategies and activities of the EU countries toward sustainable development goals. In addition, this paper describes the environmental and economic impacts of wind power technology in the EU.
Long-term natural gas contracts and their specific features are at the forefront of legal and policy discussions around the world. Issues like oil price indexation and price reviews, flexibility and take-or-pay clauses or a move to shorter term trading are being debated. This is particularly true for Europe where major changes are taking place, but also in places like Australia and Asia. This study will focus on the antitrust treatment of long-term take-or-pay natural gas contracts and their specific provisions in the European Union and the United States. It will also examine the regulatory treatment of these contracts and the regulatory environment in which these contracts operate. Issues that are covered include...
Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources [1] and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology...
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This data release presents the Yale stocks and flows database (YSTAFDB). Its data describe the use of 102 materials from the early 1800s to circa 2013 through anthropogenic cycles, their recycling and criticality properties, and on spatial scales ranging from suburbs to global. This data collection was previously scattered across multiple non-uniformly formatted files such as journal papers, reports, and unpublished spreadsheets. These data have been synthesized into YSTAFDB, which is presented as individual comma-separated text files and also in MySQL and PostgreSQL database formats. Consolidation of these data into a single database can increase their accessibility and reusability, which is relevant to diverse...
Categories: Data; Tags: AFGHANISTAN, ALBANIA, ALGERIA, ANDORRA, ANGOLA, All tags...
Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source in Europe. Europe accounted for 69% of the total installed capacity and 70% of the annual market growth during 2005. The wind energy sector would have preferred a strengthening of existing, successful, legislation, and is concerned that a new legislative package could take years to adopt at a crucial time in the development of large scale wind power. The main objective of this study is to summarize the strategies and activities of the EU countries toward sustainable development goals. In addition, this paper describes the environmental and economic impacts of wind power technology in the EU.