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The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a...
This study proposes a new use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the operational, environmental and both-unified efficiency measures of US coal-fired power plants. The power plants produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO2 and NOx) as a result of their plant operations. A Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) is used as an original non-radial DEA model. Then, it is reformulated for handling undesirable (bad) outputs. The proposed use of DEA models measures the environmental and unified performance of power plants under two variable alternatives (with and without CO2 emission control) in order to examine both the influence of US Clean Air Act (CAA) on the acid...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...
Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65–90%) diesel using (5–30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5–30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable...
The 165-km2 Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in west-central California includes 5,400 wind turbines, each rated to generate between 40 kW and 400 kW of electric power, or 580 MW total. Many birds residing or passing through the area are killed by collisions with these wind turbines. We searched for bird carcasses within 50 m of 4,074 wind turbines for periods ranging from 6 months to 4.5 years. Using mortality estimates adjusted for searcher detection and scavenger removal rates, we estimated the annual wind turbine–caused bird fatalities to number 67 (80% CI = 25–109) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), 188 (80% CI = 116–259) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 348 (80% CI = −49 to 749) American kestrels...
The 165-km2 Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in west-central California includes 5,400 wind turbines, each rated to generate between 40 kW and 400 kW of electric power, or 580 MW total. Many birds residing or passing through the area are killed by collisions with these wind turbines. We searched for bird carcasses within 50 m of 4,074 wind turbines for periods ranging from 6 months to 4.5 years. Using mortality estimates adjusted for searcher detection and scavenger removal rates, we estimated the annual wind turbine–caused bird fatalities to number 67 (80% CI = 25–109) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), 188 (80% CI = 116–259) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 348 (80% CI = −49 to 749) American kestrels...
The first part of this paper presented an ab initio exposition of the development-focused end-useoriented service-directed (DEFENDUS) approach to energy planning. In this approach, the future demand for any source of energy is estimated on the basis of the energy services required and the efficiency with which these are provided. To meet this demand, the costs per unit of the available energy-supply/saving technologies are estimated and a least-cost mix of options identified. In this second part, some of the energy studies for which the DEFENDUS method has been used are described to demonstrate that its applicability is not confined to a particular region or source of energy. These studies include: electricity for...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...
Biomass based oxygenated fuels have been identified as possible replacement of fossil fuel due to pollutant emission reduction and decrease in over-reliance on fossil fuel energy. In this study, 4 v% water-containing ethanol was mixed with (65–90%) diesel using (5–30%) biodiesel (BD) and 1 v% butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. The fuels were tested against those of biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to investigate the effect of addition of water-containing ethanol for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions in a diesel-fueled engine generator. Experimental results indicated that the fuel blend mix containing 4 v% of water-containing ethanol, 1 v% butanol and 5–30 v% of biodiesel yielded stable...
This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of ‘disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and Institutional constraints which could affect geothermal...
Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil’s success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ethanol, Innovation, Renewable energy
The use of ethanol as a fuel has been attracting increasing attention in countries that are interested in reducing their dependence on imported oil and lowering their greenhouse gas emissions. Despite this growing interest, the global ethanol market is still incipient because of the small number of producing countries, the lack of technical standardization and the existence of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers. New laws have taken effect in 2010 in the United States and the European Union imposing domestic requirements for sustainable production of ethanol. Although these are generally positive developments, they can create greater difficulties for the development of an international ethanol market. This work...
This study proposes a new use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the operational, environmental and both-unified efficiency measures of US coal-fired power plants. The power plants produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO2 and NOx) as a result of their plant operations. A Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) is used as an original non-radial DEA model. Then, it is reformulated for handling undesirable (bad) outputs. The proposed use of DEA models measures the environmental and unified performance of power plants under two variable alternatives (with and without CO2 emission control) in order to examine both the influence of US Clean Air Act (CAA) on the acid...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...
Winterfat (Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, syn. Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq., syn. Krascheninnikovia lanata Gueldenstaedt) seeds possess an after-ripening requirement to break dormancy. Germination responses of winterfat seeds to ethanol, gibberellic acid (GA3), citric acid and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) were tested in the laboratory to determine their ability to break dormancy. Ethanol, GA3 and citric acid promoted, while NaNO3 inhibited germination. Ethanol promoted fast and synchronous germination. Promotion of germination by GA3 or citric acid was weak during the test period. Citric acid damaged the radicles of seedlings. Soaking winterfat seeds in 600 to 1,000 mM ethanol for 4 to 8 hours is recommended, as...
Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm3 in 2009 — and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol...
The 165-km2 Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in west-central California includes 5,400 wind turbines, each rated to generate between 40 kW and 400 kW of electric power, or 580 MW total. Many birds residing or passing through the area are killed by collisions with these wind turbines. We searched for bird carcasses within 50 m of 4,074 wind turbines for periods ranging from 6 months to 4.5 years. Using mortality estimates adjusted for searcher detection and scavenger removal rates, we estimated the annual wind turbine–caused bird fatalities to number 67 (80% CI = 25–109) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), 188 (80% CI = 116–259) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 348 (80% CI = −49 to 749) American kestrels...
Mining and civil engineering industries sometimes use drilling muds for stabilizing a borehole during drilling wells for methane drainage, geothermal energy and radioactive waste disposal. Standard theories predicting borehole breakdown pressure assume breakdown occurs when a small fracture initiates at a location where the largest tangential stress at the borehole reaches the tensile strength of formation. Fracturing tests conducted in this study, how- ever, showed that when drilling fluid was used as an injection fluid, borehole breakdown did not occur even if a fracture initiated at a borehole wall. Bore- hole breakdown occurred when the initiated fracture became unstable after significant growth with O. 76cm...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...