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Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min-1) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO2 concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown...
We studied effects of disturbance on migrating waterbirds during spring on Cumberland Pool at Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, USA, 1999 and 2000. We recorded 240 disturbances in 477.5 hr of observation of American coots (Fulica americana), American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), black terns (Chlidonias niger), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). Recreation (n= 208) accounted for 86.7% of all disturbances, natural disturbances (n = 23) accounted for 9.6%, and 3.3% of disturbances (n = 8) were unknown. Boat fishing increased alertness by American white pelicans but did not affect escape behavior. Recreational disturbances caused increases...