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The generalized (Mahalanobis) distance and multivariate kurtosis are two powerful tests of multivariate discordancies (outliers). Unlike the generalized distance test, the multivariate kurtosis test has not been applied as a test of discordancy to fisheries data heretofore. We applied both tests, along with published algorithms for identifying suspected causal variable(s) of discordant observations, to two fisheries data sets from Lake Erie: total length, mass, and age from 1,234 burbot, Lota lota; and 22 combinations of unique subsets of 10 morphometrics taken from 119 yellow perch, Perca flavescens. For the burbot data set, the generalized distance test identified six discordant observations and the multivariate...
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Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the...
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Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook...
Crayfish are not native to the Colorado River basin (CRB), however they are now established in portions of the mainstem and in many tributaries. I used density manipulation experiments in a laboratory setting to determine intra- and interspecific competition for food between Orconectes virilis, an aggressive polytrophic crayfish now common in the CRB, and two native fishes: Gila chub, Gila intermedia, and flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus latipinnis. I tested each fish species in separate trials. Growth of Gila chub decreased when animal densities increased, however they were more affected by intraspecific competition than by crayfish presence. In contrast, growth of flannelmouth suckers was more affected by crayfish...
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We observed Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the laboratory and found free embryos (first interval after hatching) hid under rocks and did not migrate. Thus, wild embryos should be at the spawning area. Larvae (first interval feeding exogenously) initiated a slow downstream migration, and some juveniles (interval with adult features) continued to migrate slowly for at least 5 months, e.g., a 1-step long larva-juvenile migration. No other population of sturgeon yet studied has this migration style. A conceptual model using this result suggests wild year-0 sturgeon have a variable downstream migration style with short-duration (short distance) migrants and long-duration (long distance)...
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Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a widely used biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure in male fishes. In female fishes Vtg can be negatively affected by stress independent of declines in estrogen. However, few data are available on the effect of stress in male fish abnormally producing Vtg, such as when exposed to xenoestrogens. The objective for these studies was to determine the effects of stress on fish forced to produce Vtg. Three weeks prior to the experiment immature juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were acclimated to the experimental tanks and fed a maintenance ration. We induced Vtg synthesis by injecting 17??-estradiol (E2) 7 days prior to experimentation. Treatments in duplicate tanks were: (1) no stressor;...
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Differences in reaction distance to prey fish by piscivorous salmonids can alter predator–prey interactions under different visual conditions. We compared reaction distances of three piscivorous salmonids commonly found in western lakes: cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki utah, rainbow trout, O. mykiss, and the nonnative lake char, Salvelinus namaycush. Reaction distances to salmonid prey were measured as functions of light and turbidity in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition, predation rates and swimming speeds of lake char preying on juvenile cutthroat trout were measured experimentally under a range of light levels. Reaction distances for cutthroat trout and rainbow trout increased rapidly as light...
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The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric...
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We monitored habitat use and movement of 27 adult shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River, Iowa-Illinois, by radio-telemetry in April through August 1988. Our objective was to determine the response of this species to unusually low water conditions in the upper Mississippi River in 1988. Most (94%) telemetry contacts were made in 3 habitat types: main channel (50%), main channel border where wing dams were present (29%), and tailwaters of Lock and Dam 12 (15%). Habitat use in spring was affected by the extreme low flows. We often found tagged shovelnose sturgeon in the main channel and tailwaters during the spring period (11 March–20 May) where water velocities were highest. This was in contrast...
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Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests...
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Life history polymorphisms provide ecological and genetic diversity important to the long term persistence of species responding to stochastic environments. Oncorhynchus mykiss have complex and overlapping life history strategies that are also sympatric with hatchery populations. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and parentage analysis were used to identify the life history, origin (hatchery or wild) and reproductive success of migratory rainbow/steelhead for two brood years after barriers were removed from a small stream. The fluvial rainbow trout provided a source of wild genotypes to the colonizing population boosting the number of successful spawners. Significantly more parr offspring were produced by...
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River-floodplain ecosystems offer some of the most diverse and dynamic environments in the world. Accordingly, floodplain habitats harbor diverse fish assemblages. Fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes may be influenced by multiple variables operating on disparate scales, and these variables may exhibit a hierarchical organization depending on whether one variable governs another. In this study, we examined the interaction between primary variables descriptive of floodplain lake large-scale features, suites of secondary variables descriptive of water quality and primary productivity, and a set of tertiary variables descriptive of fish biodiversity across a range of floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley...
Spatial patterns of resource use by small-bodied fishes in the San Juan River were examined using stable isotopes. Using δ15N of fishes as an index of trophic position, our data suggest both native and non-native fishes primarily consumed macro-invertebrates. The δ13C of these fishes further suggested a detritus-based food web, from which most species fed on chironomids in low-velocity habitats. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between trophic level of fish species and longitudinal position in the river. This interaction was primarily attributed to a decline in trophic level of non-native red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis, relative to other species, in upstream reaches of the river. In addition,...
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Dams throughout western North America have altered thermal regimes in rivers, creating cold, clear “tailwaters” in which trout populations thrive. Ongoing drought in the region has led to highly publicized reductions in reservoir storage and raised concerns about potential reductions in downstream flows. Large changes in riverine thermal regimes may also occur as reservoir water levels drop, yet this potential impact has received far less attention. We analyzed historic water temperature and fish population data to anticipate how trout may respond to future changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river temperatures. We found that summer temperatures were inversely related to reservoir water level, with warm...
The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) is disappearing throughout its native range in the Colorado River basin of western North America. The largest remaining wild population in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada, has shown no recruitment since the 1950s. Although annual spawning is successful and larvae are seasonally abundant, no juveniles have been collected in recent decades. To evaluate the potential role of food availability in determining fate of larvae, fish and zooplankton samples were taken in 1985 from the reservoir and an adjacent, isolated backwater in which larvae were naturally produced. Food availability and primary dietary constituents were similar in both habitats. Reservoir larvae selectedBosmina spp....
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Habitat use can be complex, as tradeoffs among physiology, resource abundance, and predator avoidance affect the suitability of different environments for different species. Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an imperiled species along the west coast of North America, undertake extensive coastal migrations and occupy estuaries during the summer and early fall. Warm water and abundant prey in estuaries may afford a growth opportunity. We applied a bioenergetics model to investigate how variation in estuarine temperature, spawning frequency, and duration of estuarine residence affect consumption and growth potential for individual green sturgeon. We assumed that green sturgeon achieve observed annual growth by...
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American Eel Anguilla rostrata abundance has declined in recent decades, in part because sexually maturing, silver-stage adults, outmigrating from freshwater to oceanic spawning grounds, encounter migratory blockades or perish when passing through active hydroelectric turbines. To help improve downstream passage effectiveness and increase survival rates, the role of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration was investigated using a new type of bioassay. Inside a laboratory flume, downstream-swimming eels were exposed to both live (putative attractant) and dead (putative repellent) conspecific washings to determine whether their trajectory of downstream movement, level of activity,...
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A small irrigation diversion dam near Chiloquin, Oregon, was removed and replaced with a pump station to improve fish passage for Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) entering the Sprague River on their spawning migrations. During the developmental phase of the pump station, a need was identified to better understand the larval drift characteristics of these endangered catostomids in order to reduce entrainment into the irrigation system. The spatial, seasonal, and diel distribution of drifting larvae was measured during the 2004 spawning season at two proposed sites on the Williamson River where the pump station could be located. Larval drift for both species coincided...


map background search result map search result map Using spatial, seasonal, and diel drift patterns of larval Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) to help identify a site for a water withdrawal structure on the Williamson River, Oregon New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, <i>Salvelinus namaycush</i>, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes Habitat use and movements of shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River during extreme low flow conditions Fluvial rainbow trout contribute to the colonization of steelhead (<i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i>) in a small stream Using spatial, seasonal, and diel drift patterns of larval Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) to help identify a site for a water withdrawal structure on the Williamson River, Oregon Fluvial rainbow trout contribute to the colonization of steelhead (<i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i>) in a small stream Habitat use and movements of shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River during extreme low flow conditions New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, <i>Salvelinus namaycush</i>, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes