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A small irrigation diversion dam near Chiloquin, Oregon, was removed and replaced with a pump station to improve fish passage for Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) entering the Sprague River on their spawning migrations. During the developmental phase of the pump station, a need was identified to better understand the larval drift characteristics of these endangered catostomids in order to reduce entrainment into the irrigation system. The spatial, seasonal, and diel distribution of drifting larvae was measured during the 2004 spawning season at two proposed sites on the Williamson River where the pump station could be located. Larval drift for both species coincided...
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Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December...
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A combination of visual census and trap sampling in St. John, USVI indicated that traps performed better in gorgonian habitat than in adjacent coral reef habitat. Although most families were seen more commonly in coral habitat, they were caught more often in gorgonian areas. Traps probably fished more effectively in gorgonian habitats, especially for migrating species, because traps provided shelter in the relatively topographically uniform environment of gorgonian dominated habitats. Recently, trap fishermen on St. John have been moving effort away from traditionally fished nearshore coral reefs and into a variety of more homogeneous habitats such as gorgonian habitat. Consequently, exploitation rates of the already...
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Predation and contaminants are two possible factors in the poor recruitment of young lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in the Great Lakes. We measured the feeding rate of slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus and burbot Lota lota on young lake charr (uncontaminated young from eggs of a hatchery brood stock and contaminated young from eggs of Lake Michigan lake charr) in laboratory test chambers with a cobble substrate. The median daily consumption rate of sculpins for all tests was 2 lake charr eggs (N = 22 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-13) and 2 lake charr free embryos (N = 31 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-10). Feeding rate did not differ between hatchery and contaminated prey. Slimy sculpins continued to feed on...
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We described and predicted spatial variation in marine migration (anadromy) of female Oncorhynchus mykiss in the John Day River watershed, Oregon. We collected 149 juvenile O. mykiss across 72 sites and identified locations used by anadromous females by assigning maternal origin (anadromous versus non-anadromous) to each juvenile. These assignments used comparisons of strontium to calcium ratios in otolith primordia and freshwater growth regions to indicate maternal origin. We used logistic regression to predict probability of anadromy in relation to mean annual stream runoff using data from a subset of individuals. This model correctly predicted anadromy in a second sample of individuals with a moderate level of...
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The demography, spatial distribution, and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon in La Jolla, California, USA, were investigated to resolve the causal explanations for this and similar shark aggregations. All sharks sampled from the aggregation site (n=140) were sexually mature and 97.1 % were female. Aerial photographs taken during tethered balloon surveys revealed high densities of milling sharks of up to 5470 sharks ha-1. Eight sharks were each tagged with a continuous acoustic transmitter and manually tracked without interruption for up to 48 h. Sharks exhibited strong site-fidelity and were generally confined to a divergence (shadow) zone of...
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Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models...
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I tested the effects of different ration sizes on preferred temperatures of yearling lake charr,Salvelinus namaycush, by feeding them for about 2 weeks on one of four rations and then allowing them to thermoregulate in a temporal thermal gradient for 2 to 3 days. Selected temperatures and ration were directly and linearly correlated: the larger the ration, the higher the temperature selected. Mean preferred temperatures at different rations (shown in parentheses as percent of body weight per day) were as follows: 9.2°C (0.3); 10.6°C (0.8); 11.7°C (2.0); and 12.6°C (5.5). While the shift to lower temperature, under restricted ration, would maximize food conversion efficiency, previous growth studies indicate that...
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Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher...
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Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast (SONCC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) is federally listed as a threatened species. The Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) is rehabilitating the Trinity River to restore coho salmon (coho) and other salmonid populations. In order to evaluate the program’s actions, several studies of movements and behavior of coho in the Trinity River were conducted from 2006 to 2009, including snorkel surveys and mark-recapture techniques based on Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, elastomer tags, and radio transmitters. Catch, recapture, and condition of natural sub-yearlings, along with site fidelity and emigration of hatchery-reared...
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Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed...
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Observations of three incidents of the mass mortality of nearshore fishes are reported; each corresponded to periods of high-amplitude, long-period swells during the 1982-1983 El Niño event along the coast of central California. Members of the nearshore kelp forest fish assemblage, primarily of the genus Sebastes, accounted for 96% of the observed mortalities and S. mystinus (blue rockfish) alone accounted for 72%.
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The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the...
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Monitoring changes in diets of fish is essential to understanding how food web dynamics respond to changes in native prey abundances. In the Great Lakes, Diporeia, a benthic macroinvertebrate and primary food of native benthivores, declined following the introduction of invasive Dreissena mussels and these changes were reflected in fish diets. We examined the diets of deepwater sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii collected in bottom trawls during 2010–2014 in the main basin of Lake Huron, and compared these results to an earlier diet study (2003–2005) to assess if their diets have continued to change after a prolonged period of Dreissena mussel invasion and declined Diporeia densities. Diporeia, Mysis, Bythotrephes,...
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Predation can play an important role in the recruitment dynamics of fishes with intensity regulated by behavioral (i.e., prey selectivity) and/or environmental conditions that may be especially important for rare or endangered fishes. We conducted laboratory experiments to quantify prey selection and capture efficiency by three predators employing distinct foraging strategies: pelagic piscivore (walleye Sander vitreus); benthic piscivore (flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris) and generalist predator (smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu) foraging on two size classes of age-0 pallid sturgeon: large (75–100 mm fork length [FL]) and small (40–50 mm FL). Experiments at high (> 70 nephalometric turbidity units [NTU])...
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Understanding the environmental processes determining the timing and success of reproduction is of critical importance to developing effective management strategies of marine fishes. Unfortunately it has proven difficult to comprehensively study the reproductive behavior of broadcast-spawning fishes. The use of electronic data storage tags (DSTs) has the potential to provide insights into the behavior of fishes. These tags allow for data collection over relatively large spatial and temporal scales that can be correlated to predicted environmental conditions and ultimately be used to refine predictions of year class strength. In this paper we present data retrieved from DSTs demonstrating that events putatively identified...
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We used bioenergetics models to investigate temperature effects induced by climate change on the growth and consumption by Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, and steelhead O. mykiss in Lakes Michigan and Huron. We updated biological inputs to account for recent changes in the food webs and used temperature inputs in response to regional climate observed in the baseline period (1964–1993) and projected in the future period (2043–2070).Bioenergetics simulations were run across multiple age-classes and across all four seasons in different scenarios of prey availability. Due to the increased capacity of prey consumption, future growth and consumption by these salmonines were projected...
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Feeding habits of Oxygymnocypris stewartii were investigated based on monthly sampling in the Yarlung Zangbo River from August 2008 to August 2009. The gut contents of 194 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods. This species can be considered a generalized and opportunistic predator feeding both on teleosts and aquatic insects. A multivariate analysis revealed noticeable variation in O. stewartii diet composition with fish size and season. The smaller specimens fed primarily on Cobitidae and Hydropsychidae. As they grew, Cyprinidae and Chironomidae larvae became important prey. The preferred food items were teleosts in summer and autumn. For winter and spring, the predominant...
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In 1926 cannery workers from the Wakefield Fisheries Plant at Little Port Walter in Southeast Alaska captured small trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a portion of Sashin Creek populated with a wild steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss) run. They planted them into Sashin Lake which had been fishless to that time and separated from the lower stream by two large waterfalls that prevented upstream migration of any fish. In 1996 we sampled adult steelhead from the lower creek and juvenile O. mykiss from an intermediate portion of the creek, Sashin Lake, and five lakes that had been stocked with fish from Sashin Lake in 1938. Tissue samples from these eight populations were compared for variation in: microsatellite DNA at 10...


map background search result map search result map Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA Variability in expression of anadromy by female <i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i> within a river network Assessment of juvenile coho salmon movement and behavior in relation to rehabilitation efforts in the Trinity River, California, using PIT tags and radiotelemetry Using spatial, seasonal, and diel drift patterns of larval Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) to help identify a site for a water withdrawal structure on the Williamson River, Oregon Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA Using spatial, seasonal, and diel drift patterns of larval Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) to help identify a site for a water withdrawal structure on the Williamson River, Oregon Assessment of juvenile coho salmon movement and behavior in relation to rehabilitation efforts in the Trinity River, California, using PIT tags and radiotelemetry Variability in expression of anadromy by female <i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i> within a river network