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Threatened fishes of the world: Iotichthys phlegethontis Cope, 1874 (Cyprinidae), credited to Belk, Mark C, published in 2004. Published in Environmental Biology of Fishes, volume 71, on pages 378 - 378, in 2004.
We report the first published accounts of spawning behavior and spawning site selection of the flannelmouth sucker in two small tributaries of the lower Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Spawning was observed on 20 March 1992 and from 28 March to 10 April 1993 in the Paria River, and from 16 to 19 March 1993 in Bright Angel Creek. Flannelmouth suckers exhibited promiscuous spawning behavior–individual females were typically paired with two or more males for a given event and sometimes changed partners between events. Multiple egg deposits by different females sometimes occurred at one spawning site. Flannelmouth sucker selected substrates from 16 to 32 mm diameter in both streams. Spawning occurred...
Using a variety of sampling techniques and observations we describe aspects of the reproductive ecology and early life-history of Bear Lake sculpin, Cottus extensus, a species endemic to Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. Adult sculpin spawned in shallow water (0.5-6.0 m depths) in cavities beneath large cobbles and boulders. During 1993, egg mass densities were highest (> 4.0 m(2)) at 1.0-2.0 m depths. Electivity indices verified substrate selection and also indicated an avoidance of sand- and gravel-embedded materials. During years of low water elevation, suitable spawning substrates were restricted to one Or two limited areas of the lake and comprised < 0.004% of the total benthic area. Disturbance from turbulence, as would...
Crayfish are not native to the Colorado River basin (CRB), however they are now established in portions of the mainstem and in many tributaries. I used density manipulation experiments in a laboratory setting to determine intra- and interspecific competition for food between Orconectes virilis, an aggressive polytrophic crayfish now common in the CRB, and two native fishes: Gila chub, Gila intermedia, and flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus latipinnis. I tested each fish species in separate trials. Growth of Gila chub decreased when animal densities increased, however they were more affected by intraspecific competition than by crayfish presence. In contrast, growth of flannelmouth suckers was more affected by crayfish...
Spatial patterns of resource use by small-bodied fishes in the San Juan River were examined using stable isotopes. Using δ15N of fishes as an index of trophic position, our data suggest both native and non-native fishes primarily consumed macro-invertebrates. The δ13C of these fishes further suggested a detritus-based food web, from which most species fed on chironomids in low-velocity habitats. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between trophic level of fish species and longitudinal position in the river. This interaction was primarily attributed to a decline in trophic level of non-native red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis, relative to other species, in upstream reaches of the river. In addition,...
The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) is disappearing throughout its native range in the Colorado River basin of western North America. The largest remaining wild population in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada, has shown no recruitment since the 1950s. Although annual spawning is successful and larvae are seasonally abundant, no juveniles have been collected in recent decades. To evaluate the potential role of food availability in determining fate of larvae, fish and zooplankton samples were taken in 1985 from the reservoir and an adjacent, isolated backwater in which larvae were naturally produced. Food availability and primary dietary constituents were similar in both habitats. Reservoir larvae selectedBosmina spp....
The morphologically unique and endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha, is found in canyon-bound reaches of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Now limited to six isolated reproducing populations, this species is believed to have been once distributed over a large portion of the mainstem river. Because the species inhabits remote canyon areas, little is known about its spawning ecology. The largest remaining population occurs in the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) near Grand Canyon, where we conducted a three-year study of spawning ecology during spring (March-June) 1993?1995. We analyzed seasonal patterns of movement, population density, relative condition, spawning scores, and frequency of ripe condition and...
Woundfin, Plagopterus argentissimus, fed predominantly on simuliid larvae during the day, and shifted to the larger Hydropsyche spp. at night. Ephemeropteran larvae were eaten nearly uniformly throughout the 24 hour period. Mean weight of food consumed varied from 20?40 mg per individual (0.7?2.5% body weight) throughout the 24 h period. Our estimated daily ration of about 8% body weight, at temperatures that varied between 15?25�C, is based upon our measure of mean gut contents over a 24h period, combined with intestinal evacuation rates suggested for other cyprinids in the literature. The relatively continuous feeding pattern suggests a foraging strategy that would minimize competition with other species for food...
Spatial and temporal variation of fish communities in four secondary channels of the San Juan River between Shiprock, NM and Bluff, UT were investigated from July 1993 through November 1994. Fish abundance and habitat availability data were collected to determine if physical attributes of sites influenced spatial and temporal variation in their fish communities. Stability of habitat was shown to positively influence the stability of the fish community. Analysis of variance revealed greater spatial than temporal variation in the abundance of red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis, while speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus showed greater...
The completion in the fall of 1984 of Taylor Draw Dam on the White River, Colorado, formed Kenney Reservoir — thus impounding the last significant free-flowing tributary in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Fishes were sampled above and below the dam axis prior to closure of the dam and in the reservoir and river downstream following impoundment. While immediate effects of the dam to the ichthyofauna included blockage of upstream migration to 80 km of documented range for endangered Colorado squawfish, the reservoir also proved to have profound delayed effects on the river''s species composition. Pre-impoundment investigations in 1983–1984 showed strong domination by native species above, within, and below the...
The Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, the principal native piscivore of the Colorado River basin, was once widespread and abundant in large rivers and their major tributaries. It occurs today only in the upstream regions of its historic range and is threatened with extinction. Growth rate of the species there is much slower than its potential rate and the rate that might once have been typical in lower-basin rivers. We develop the hypothesis that the interaction of slow growth and increased early-life mortality is an important cause of the decline of Colorado squawfish in the upper basin. We use a growth-rate versus temperature relation for Colorado squawfish to compare temperature regimes of historic and...
Growth and survival of Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, larvae under fluctuating 18, 22, and 26 degrees C (5 degrees C diel fluctuations) and constant 18, 22, 26 degrees C, and 30 degrees C temperature conditions and ration size corresponding to 12.5, 28, 64,142, 320 brine shrimp nauplii fish(-1) day(-1) was determined from laboratory experiments. Growth was optimal at 31 degrees C and high at temperatures of 26 degrees C to 30 degrees C, at the highest food abundance. Lowest growth was under lowest food rations and highest temperatures. Growth of Colorado squawfish larvae declined substantially at temperatures < 22 degrees C. Neither growth nor survival was significantly different between fluctuating or...