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Models that treat innovations to the price of energy as predetermined with respect to U.S. macroeconomic aggregates are widely used in the literature. For example, it is common to order energy prices first in recursively identified VAR models of the transmission of energy price shocks. Because exactly identifying assumptions are inherently untestable, this approach in practice has required an act of faith in the empirical plausibility of the delay restriction used for identification. An alternative view that would invalidate such models is that energy prices respond instantaneously to macroeconomic news, implying that energy prices should be ordered last in recursively identified VAR models. In this paper, we propose...
This paper presents the strategy of the European Union in the field of energy and climate change. At the heart of the package are three commitments to be met by 2020: to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20%, to ensure that 20% of final energy consumption is met with renewable sources, and to raise energy efficiency by 20%. This strategy is based on the scientific consensus drawn by the International Panel for Climate Change, and implements the EU political strategy to limit the anthropogenic temperature rise to no more than 2 °C. A Directive for the geological storage of CO2 is another integral part of the package. This should enable the development and subsequent deployment of zero emission power plants....
Every production practice, including conservation tillage, has positive or negative environmental consequences that may involve air, land, water, and/or the health and ecological status of wildlife. The negative impacts associated with agricultural production, and the use of conventional tillage systems in particular, include soil erosion, energy use, leaching and runoff of agricultural chemicals, and carbon emissions. Several of these impacts are quantified. The conclusions suggest that the use of conservation tillage does result in less of an adverse impact on the environment from agricultural production than does conventional tillage by reducing surface water runoff and wind erosion. Additionally, wildlife habitat...
Developing an energy policy from a collection of programs is made more complicated because there is no single value that can be used as a best estimate of the contribution of a single policy, despite the ability to estimate the impact Of the complete suite. In this paper we illustrate the problem and use cooperative game theory to show one way to estimate individual effects of a policy goal in the context of collective estimates. Using an economic equilibrium model, we illustrate the behavior of four policies, namely, a gasoline tax, CAFE standards, a carbon tax, and drilling the Arctic National Wildlife Reserve, through their Shapley value contributions in measuring the impact of each in the context of a suite...
This study evaluates the environmental impact of the cement production and its variations between different cement plants, using Life Cycle Impact Assessment. For that purpose, details of the cement production processes are investigated in order to show the respective part of raw materials preparation and clinker production using environmental impacts calculated with CML01 indicators. For the kiln emission data, a European pollutant emission register for French intensive industries is used to quantify the variability of indicators between cement plants. For the CML01 indicators that are controlled by kiln emissions, some of them (i.e. global warming, photochemical oxidation) show variations between cement plants...
Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA,...
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This dataset was last updated 02/2017. This version includes a new tidal restrictions metric that assesses the effect of undersized culverts and bridges on tidal regime.The previous version (3.1) was updated on 05/2016 by incorporating a revised version of the land cover classification, DSLland Version 3.1, developed by UMass, which included the addition of The Nature Conservancy’s Northeast lakes and ponds classification.This dataset depicts the ecological integrity of locations (represented by 30 m grid cells) throughout the northeastern United States based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010. Ecological integrity is defined as the ability of an area (e.g., local site or landscape) to sustain...
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This time-enabled map service depicts the infestation of the mountain pine beetle within Banff, Kootenay and Yoho National Parks between 1999 and 2007. It also contains reference boundaries for the parks, areas susceptible to the mountain pine beetle and areas of lodgepole pine.
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The State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys acquired photogrammetric digital surface models (DSMs) and co-registered orthorectified aerial images (orthoimages) for the west coast of Alaska in support of coastal vulnerability mapping efforts. This report is a summary of the data collected over 26 developed areas along approximately 3,500 km of coastline in the Bering Sea, Norton Sound, and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta regions (fig. 1). Aerial photographs were collected between July 31 and September 6, 2015, and processed using Structure from- Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques. Ground control points (GCPs) and checkpoints were collected in support of these data products during a Global Navigation...
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The Geologic Map Index of Alaska (Map Index) is an online, interactive web mapping application that provides access to an actively growing geographic index of geology-related maps of Alaska and adjacent areas. This online research tool provides the locations and outlines of most DGGS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologic and geophysical maps of Alaska in a single, interactive web map. It allows searches of the map database by geographic area of interest, keywords, themes, publishing agency, dates, and other criteria. The search results provide links to DGGS's comprehensive, multi-agency publications database, where users may view and download publications for free. No other geographic index of Alaska geologic...
This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the current situation of natural resources consumption in the world and its relationship with the level of social development. The Ecological Footprint concept is used to indicate human beings' environmental impact, and the Human Development Index (HDI) is used as a process for the social development level. Based on the dataset of 136 countries from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), we calculate the Gini coefficients of the total Ecological Footprint per person (EF) and its sub items, i.e., Renewable Resources Footprint per person (REF) and Energy Footprint per person (EEF). The results indicate that significant inequality exists in natural resources consumption...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
The first part of this paper presented an ab initio exposition of the development-focused end-useoriented service-directed (DEFENDUS) approach to energy planning. In this approach, the future demand for any source of energy is estimated on the basis of the energy services required and the efficiency with which these are provided. To meet this demand, the costs per unit of the available energy-supply/saving technologies are estimated and a least-cost mix of options identified. In this second part, some of the energy studies for which the DEFENDUS method has been used are described to demonstrate that its applicability is not confined to a particular region or source of energy. These studies include: electricity for...
This paper introduces the special issue on Strategic Choices for Renewable Energy Investment, which is a collection of best papers presented at an international research conference held in St. Gallen (Switzerland) in February 2010. Substantial private investment is needed if public policy objectives to increase the share of renewable energy and prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change are to be achieved. The aim of this paper, and the entire special issue, is to draw scholarly attention to the processes underlying strategic choices for renewable energy investment, and how they are influenced by energy policy. We disentangle the role of risk-return perceptions, portfolio effects and path dependence in explaining...
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
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This dataset depicts the ecological integrity of locations (represented by 30 m grid cells) throughout the northeastern United States based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010 for aquatic systems.The values for this dataset were extracted from the Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2 for all aquatic systems. Updated 09/2017. The metadata for the original dataset is as follows:This dataset was last updated 02/2017. This version includes a new tidal restrictions metric that assesses the effect of undersized culverts and bridges on tidal regime. The previous version (3.1) was updated on 05/2016 by incorporating a revised version of the land cover classification, DSLland Version...


map background search result map search result map Mountain Pine Beetle Aquatic Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Index of Ecological Integrity, Stratified by Ecosystem, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Geologic Map Index of Alaska Photogrammetric digital surface models and orthoimagery for 26 coastal communities of western Alaska Mountain Pine Beetle Photogrammetric digital surface models and orthoimagery for 26 coastal communities of western Alaska Aquatic Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Index of Ecological Integrity, Stratified by Ecosystem, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Geologic Map Index of Alaska