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The provision of both electrical and mechanical energy services can play a critical role in poverty alleviation for the almost two billion rural users who currently lack access to electricity. Distributed generation using diesel generators remains a common means of electricity provision for rural communities throughout the world. Due to rising fuel costs, the need to address poverty, and consequences of global warming, it is necessary to develop cost efficient means of reducing fossil fuel consumption in isolated diesel microgrids. Based on a case study in Nicaragua, a set of demand and supply side measures are ordered by their annualized costs in order to approximate an energy supply curve. The curve highlights...
In this paper, I develop a model where “exploration” yields information about the size and location of the stock of an exhaustible resource. This information is valuable in two ways. First, before production takes place, reserves must be located through exploration. The process of exploration changes “unproven reserves,” which cannot be produced, into “proven reserves,” which can. One value of exploration, then, is that it allows total production over time to expand (the expansion effect). Second, by exploring in an early time period, a producer gains information about the true stock size prior to making a decision about how fast to exploit reserves. With better information, the extraction rate chosen by the producer...
Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. "From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes". In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more...
Nations must work together to minimize the risk of global warming. A worldwide energy efficiency campaign - led and coordinated by an International Energy Efficiency Agency (IEEA) - could be a critical component in such an effort. The IEEA could: I) strengthen energy efficiency efforts in industrialized countries; 2) help to build capability for implementing energy efficiency improvements in developing and East European countries; 3) provide capital for large-scale energy efficiency investments in developing and East European nations. Appropriate activities for the IEEA include information dissemination; joint R& D programrues; demonstration of technologies as well as policy instruments; training or supporting national...
Biofuels could reduce reliance on fossil oil, while helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promoting rural development. This study assessed the viability of using local biodiesel production from sunflower in Tuscany (Italy) to meet inland demand for diesel fuel in compliance with the European Directives. A crop growth model, GIS and geostatistics were used to identify suitable areas for biodiesel production, considering potential sunflower yields alongside essential sustainability criteria: energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings throughout the supply chain. Simulation results indicate that biodiesel potential, estimated at 95,000 t/year, corresponds to 104,400 tCO2 eq/year of GHG saved and to...
In recent years, the G8+5 system has proven to be a major focal point of international cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. The G8 has set up multiple dialogues and collaborative frameworks with five emerging economies (China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa) on energy and energy efficiency. The most prominent initiative so far is the creation of the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in 2009. This article critically evaluates these joint efforts between the G8 and the [`]Plus Five' on energy efficiency. More specifically, the purpose of this article is (1) to frame and explain the emergence of this kind of great-power cooperation; (2) to map G8+5 collaboration on...
Energy innovation plays a crucial role in the reduction of carbon emissions. In order to design climate and energy policies that promote the development, deployment and diffusion of new energy technologies, policy makers not only require a theoretical understanding of the energy innovation system, but also empirical evidence of the effects that policy actions have had. This paper focuses on public energy R&D, a traditional and controversial option among the various climate technology policies, and empirically analyses its relationship with carbon emissions per GDP (i.e. carbon intensity) and its two components: energy intensity and the carbon factor. Evidence of the causality links that have prevailed in 13 advanced...
This paper analyzes the co-benefits of transport sector electrification in terms of reductions of greenhouse gas and local environmental emissions, improvement in energy security and employment generation during 2015–2050 in the case of Nepal—a developing country with large hydropower potential. A bottom up energy system model of Nepal based on the MARKAL framework was developed to assess the effects of meeting a part of the land transport service demand through electrified mass transport system and electric vehicles. The present study shows that if the share of electricity based transport services is to grow from 10% in 2015 to 35% by 2050, the hydropower generation capacity would have to increase by 495 MW by...
Improving energy efficiency is the most effective and least expensive way to reduce carbon dioxide (C02) emissions in most industrialized nations - including the UK. A report from the UKAEA's own Energy Technology Support Unit concludes that energy efficiency can displace nearly four times more C02 than nuclear power can - more quickly and more cost-effectively. Each pound invested in efficient lighting can displace four to five times as much C02 as a pound invested in new nuclear power. Meanwhile, given recent dramatic progress in renewable energy technologies, the most promising long-term COz-abatement strategy may be a synergistic combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971–2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance...
An avalanche destroyed the main hydroelectric transmission line to Juneau, Alaska in April, 2008. Diesel-generated electricity was substituted, causing electricity prices to increase 500% for 45 days. Electricity demand fell by 25% during the supply disruption. Most of the reduction occurred before the higher rates were implemented. Some conservation – about 8% of historic consumption – persisted after the transmission line was repaired and prices returned to normal. Consumers reduced energy use through a combination of new habits and technical improvements. A survey of residential consumers indicated that the average household undertook 10 conservation actions, with major changes in lighting, space heating, fuel...
Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. "From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes". In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more...
This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional...
European Union countries’ current energy policies for the transport sector promote, amongst other initiatives; urban mobility plans, the renewal of fleets of cars and industrial vehicles and the introduction of biofuel. From the point of view of eco-efficiency and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), energy policies must go further. The objective of this paper is to analyse the current transport model and the policies on energy efficiency being promoted in the EU from a LCA point of view. Special attention has been paid to private vehicles, in assessing the environmental impact of the various stages of manufacture, their use and disposal, and the consequences of plans to renew fleets. How old should a vehicle ideally be...
Electricity is needed to extract, treat and convey water. Water service providers recognize that electricity costs constitute one of the biggest operational costs of Water Supply Systems (WSS). The practice of water supply requires new energy management strategies and solutions which need to improve WSS energy and hydraulic efficiency and to be innovative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Three management practices and solutions for WSS are presented and analyzed in this paper. The first solution proposes the installation of a water turbine in gravity pipes for pressure control and for electricity production. The second solution is the optimization of pump operational schedules according to electricity...
In recent years, the G8+5 system has proven to be a major focal point of international cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. The G8 has set up multiple dialogues and collaborative frameworks with five emerging economies (China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa) on energy and energy efficiency. The most prominent initiative so far is the creation of the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in 2009. This article critically evaluates these joint efforts between the G8 and the [`]Plus Five' on energy efficiency. More specifically, the purpose of this article is (1) to frame and explain the emergence of this kind of great-power cooperation; (2) to map G8+5 collaboration on...
Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the “efficiency gap” or “energy paradox.” The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies...
This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971–2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance...
Improving energy efficiency is the most effective and least expensive way to reduce carbon dioxide (C02) emissions in most industrialized nations - including the UK. A report from the UKAEA's own Energy Technology Support Unit concludes that energy efficiency can displace nearly four times more C02 than nuclear power can - more quickly and more cost-effectively. Each pound invested in efficient lighting can displace four to five times as much C02 as a pound invested in new nuclear power. Meanwhile, given recent dramatic progress in renewable energy technologies, the most promising long-term COz-abatement strategy may be a synergistic combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
We analyse two popular strategies for reducing fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (C02) emissions: revitalizing nuclear power, and improving energy efficiency. Under highly favourable assumptions for nuclear power in scenarios of moderate to high energy growth, we find that even ff large nuclear plants (I 000 MW) could be built every one to three days from now until 2025 (which is impossible in the Third World), global C02 emissions would still continue to grow. Thus, nuclear power cannot contribute significantly to abating greenhouse warming, except possibly in scenarios of low energy growth for which the problem is already largely ameliorated by efficiency improvement. In the USA - the world's largest producer of C02...