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Using a variety of sampling techniques and observations we describe aspects of the reproductive ecology and early life-history of Bear Lake sculpin, Cottus extensus, a species endemic to Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. Adult sculpin spawned in shallow water (0.5-6.0 m depths) in cavities beneath large cobbles and boulders. During 1993, egg mass densities were highest (> 4.0 m(2)) at 1.0-2.0 m depths. Electivity indices verified substrate selection and also indicated an avoidance of sand- and gravel-embedded materials. During years of low water elevation, suitable spawning substrates were restricted to one Or two limited areas of the lake and comprised < 0.004% of the total benthic area. Disturbance from turbulence, as would...
Aquatic organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) at early life-stages may have reduced reproductive fitness via disruption of reproductive and non-reproductive behavioral and physiological pathways. Survival to reproductive age relies upon optimal non-reproductive trait expression, such as adequate predator avoidance responses, which may be impacted through EDC exposure. During a predator–prey confrontation, larval fish use an innate C-start escape behavior to rapidly move away from an approaching threat. We tested the hypotheses that (1) larval fathead minnows exposed to estrogens, a primary class of EDCs, singularly or in mixture, suffer a reduced ability to perform an innate C-start behavior...