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This paper studies the importance of the cohesive zone in the modelling of a fluid driven fracture under plain strain conditions. The fracture is driven by pumping of an incompressible viscous fluid at the fracture inlet. Rock deformation is modeled for linear elastic and poroelastic solids. Fluid flow in the fracture is modeled by lubrication theory. The cohesive zone approach is used as the fracture propagation criterion. Finite element analysis was used to compute the solution for the crack length, the fracture opening and propagation pressure as a function of the time and distance from the wellbore. It is demonstrated that the crack profiles and the propagation pressures are larger in the case of elastic-softening...
Recent research reports appear to indicate a real possibility that the low-frequency electromagnetic field produced by the power transmission and distribution network presents a health problem. A critical assessment of the available information is presented here. The state of knowledge, available evidence and conflicting reports indicate a definite need for interim action by the power industry. New direction for analytical research, possible interim avoidance measures, proper advice to clients and the public are discussed. Detailed mathematical modeling for the linear and nonlinear dynamics of DNA and the chromosome as a whole is suggested.