Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: Ecography (X)

40 results (139ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
Drastic shifts in species distributions are a cause of concern for ecologists. Such shifts pose great threat to biodiversity especially under unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Many studies have documented recent shifts in species distributions. However, most of these studies are limited to regional scales, and do not consider the abundance structure within species ranges. Developing methods to detect systematic changes in species distributions over their full ranges is critical for understanding the impact of changing environments and for successful conservation planning. Here, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Understanding how environmental factors interact to determine the abundance and distribution of animals is a primary goal of ecology, and fundamental to the conservation of wildlife populations. Studies of these relationships, however, often assume static environmental conditions, and rarely consider effects of competition with ecologically similar species. In many parts of their shared ranges, grizzly bears Ursus arctos and American black bears U. americanus have nearly complete dietary overlap and share similar life history traits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that density patterns of both bear species would reflect seasonal variation in available resources, with areas of higher primary productivity supporting...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Ongoing and predicted global change makes understanding and predicting species’ range shifts an urgent scientific priority. Here, we provide a synthetic perspective on the so far poorly understood effects of interspecific interactions on range expansion rates. We present theoretical foundations for how interspecific interactions may modulate range expansion rates, consider examples from empirical studies of biological invasions and natural range expansions as well as process-based simulations, and discuss how interspecific interactions can be more broadly represented in process-based, spatiotemporally explicit range forecasts. Theory tells us that interspecific interactions affect expansion rates via alteration...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Geoprocessing of large gridded data according to overlap with irregular landscape features is common to many large-scale ecological analyses. The geoknife R package was created to facilitate reproducible analyses of gridded datasets found on the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal web application or elsewhere, using a web-enabled workflow that eliminates the need to download and store large datasets that are reliably hosted on the Internet. The package provides access to several data subset and summarization algorithms that are available on remote web processing servers. Outputs from geoknife include spatial and temporal data subsets, spatially-averaged time series values filtered by user-specified areas of interest,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Many studies address the relationships between diversity or distribution and attributes of the physical environment. However, how these relationships are connected to variation in life history is poorly understood. This is particularly true in the case of pteridophytes. Japanese ferns and their allies comprise one of the best-known pteridophyte floras in the world. We analyzed ca 600 species of Japanese pteridophytes for which there is detailed information on distribution, reproduction, and chromosome number. Species richness was greatest in groups with a single reproductive mode (sexual, followed by apogamous), but distribution was greatest in species groups with multiple reproductive modes: sexual plus either...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
Landscapes available to birds to select for breeding locations are arrayed along multiple dimensions. Identifying the primary gradients structuring shrubsteppe bird communities in the western United States is important because widespread habitat loss and alteration are shifting the environmental template on which these birds depend. We integrated field habitat surveys, GIS coverages, and bird counts from 61 Breeding Bird Survey routes located in shrubsteppe habitats across a >800 000 km2 region to determine the gradients of habitat, topography, and geography underlying bird communities. A small set of habitat features dominated the primary environmental gradients in a canonical ordination; the 13 species in the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
The size of animal home ranges often varies inversely with population density among populations of a species. This fact has implications for population monitoring using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) models, in which both the scale of home-range movements σ and population density D usually appear as parameters, and both may vary among populations. It will often be appropriate to model a structural relationship between population-specific values of these parameters, rather than to assume independence. We suggest re-parameterizing the SECR model using kp = σp √Dp, where kp relates to the degree of overlap between home ranges and the subscript p distinguishes populations. We observe that kp is often nearly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Estimation of species richness of local communities has become an important topic in community ecology and monitoring. Investigators can seldom enumerate all the species present in the area of interest during sampling sessions. If the location of interest is sampled repeatedly within a short time period, the number of new species recorded is typically largest in the initial sample and decreases as sampling proceeds, but new species may be detected if sampling sessions are added. The question is how to estimate the total number of species. The data collected by sampling the area of interest repeatedly can be used to build species-accumulation curves: the cumulative number of species recorded as a function of the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Spatial autocorrelation in species' distributions has been recognized as inflating the probability of a type I error in hypotheses tests, causing biases in variable selection, and violating the assumption of independence of error terms in models such as correlation or regression. However, it remains unclear whether these problems occur at all spatial resolutions and extents, and under which conditions spatially explicit modeling techniques are superior. Our goal was to determine whether spatial models were superior at large extents and across many different species. In addition, we investigated the importance of purely spatial effects in distribution patterns relative to the variation that could be explained through...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Population structure and spatial distribution are fundamentally important fields within ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. To investigate pan-Atlantic connectivity of globally endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from two National Parks in Florida, USA, we applied a multidisciplinary approach comparing genetic analysis and ocean circulation modeling. The Everglades (EP) is a juvenile feeding ground, whereas the Dry Tortugas (DT) is used for courtship, breeding, and feeding by adults and juveniles. We sequenced two mitochondrial segments from 138 turtles sampled there from 2006-2015, and simulated oceanic transport to estimate their origins. Genetic and ocean connectivity data revealed northwestern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Understanding movement behavior and identifying areas of landscape connectivity is critical for the conservation of many species. However, collecting fine‐scale movement data can be prohibitively time consuming and costly, especially for rare or endangered species, whereas existing data sets may provide the best available information on animal movement. Contemporary movement models may not be an option for modeling existing data due to low temporal resolution and large or unusual error structures, but inference can still be obtained using a functional movement modeling approach. We use a functional movement model to perform a population‐level analysis of telemetry data collected during the reintroduction of Canada...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
There is considerable debate about the role of competition in shaping species distributions over broad spatial extents. This debate has practical implications because predicting changes in species' geographic ranges in response to ongoing environmental change would be simpler if competition could be ignored. While this debate has been the subject of many reviews, recent literature has not addressed the rates of relevant processes. This omission is surprising in that ecologists hypothesized decades ago that regional competitive exclusion is a slow process. The goal of this review is to reassess the debate under the hypothesis that competitive exclusion over broad spatial extents is a slow process.Available evidence,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) is a free online software tool that suggests potential hosts for fish parasites. For a particular parasite species from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda), PaNic takes data from known hosts (maximum body length, growth rate, life span, age at first maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) and hypothesizes similar fish species that might serve as hosts to that parasite. Users can give varying weights to host attributes and create custom models. In addition to suggesting plausible hosts (with varying degrees of confidence), the models indicate known host species that appear to be outliers in comparison to other known hosts....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
With changing climate, many species are projected to move poleward or to higher elevations to track suitable climates. The prediction that species will move poleward assumes that geographically marginal populations are at the edge of the species' climatic range. We studied Pinus coulteri from the center to the northern (poleward) edge of its range, and examined three scenarios regarding the relationship between the geographic and climatic margins of a species' range. We used herbarium and iNaturalist.org records to identify P. coulteri sites, generated a species distribution model based on temperature, precipitation, climatic water deficit, and actual evapotranspiration, and projected suitability under future climate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Sampling is a key issue for answering most ecological and evolutionary questions. The importance of developing a rigorous sampling design tailored to specific questions has already been discussed in the ecological and sampling literature and has provided useful tools and recommendations to sample and analyse ecological data. However, sampling issues are often difficult to overcome in ecological studies due to apparent inconsistencies between theory and practice, often leading to the implementation of simplified sampling designs that suffer from unknown biases. Moreover, we believe that classical sampling principles which are based on estimation of means and variances are insufficient to fully address many ecological...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is an invasive annual that occupies perennial grass and shrub communities throughout the western United States. Bronus tectorum exhibits an intriguing spatio-temporal pattern of invasion in low elevation ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa/bunchgrass communities in western Montana where it forms dense rings beneath solitary pines following fire. This pattern provides a unique opportunity to investigate several indirect effects of native vegetation that influence the invasion pattern of B. tectorum, and specifically how native species, disturbance, and soil resources interact to influence the spatio-temporal pattern of invasion. We established four replicate field sites, each containing burned-tree,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
“Species distribution modeling” was recently ranked as one of the top five “research fronts” in ecology and the environmental sciences by ISI's Essential Science Indicators (Renner and Warton 2013), reflecting the importance of predicting how species distributions will respond to anthropogenic change. Unfortunately, species distribution models (SDMs) often perform poorly when applied to novel environments. Compounding on this problem is the shortage of methods for evaluating SDMs (hence, we may be getting our predictions wrong and not even know it). Traditional methods for validating SDMs quantify a model's ability to classify locations as used or unused. Instead, we propose to focus on how well SDMs can predict...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
Many studies address the relationships between diversity or distribution and attributes of the physical environment. However, how these relationships are connected to variation in life history is poorly understood. This is particularly true in the case of pteridophytes. Japanese ferns and their allies comprise one of the best-known pteridophyte floras in the world. We analyzed ca 600 species of Japanese pteridophytes for which there is detailed information on distribution, reproduction, and chromosome number. Species richness was greatest in groups with a single reproductive mode (sexual, followed by apogamous), but distribution was greatest in species groups with multiple reproductive modes: sexual plus either...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography
thumbnail
There is growing need to develop models of spatial patterns in animal abundance, yet comparatively few examples of such models exist. This is especially true in situations where the abundance of one species may inhibit that of another, such as the intensively-farmed landscape of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the central United States, where waterfowl production is largely constrained by mesocarnivore nest predation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to relate the distribution of various land-cover types to the relative abundances of four mesocarnivores in the PPR: coyote Canis latrans, raccoon Procyon lotor, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. We developed models for each species...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecography