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In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial Variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However. if the benefits of energy...
In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial Variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However. if the benefits of energy...
In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial Variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However. if the benefits of energy...
We provide an overview of research related to environmental effects of disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in sites in the United States. Our focus is on aspects of CCR that have the potential to negatively influence aquatic organisms and the health of aquatic ecosystems. We identify major issues of concern, as well as areas in need of further investigation. Intentional or accidental release of CCR into aquatic systems has generally been associated with deleterious environmental effects. A large number of metals and trace elements are present in CCR, some of which are rapidly accumulated to high concentrations by aquatic organisms. Moreover, a variety of biological responses have been observed in organisms...
With the push for energy independence and fuels that emit fewer greenhouse gases, domestically produced natural gas has been growing in popularity. But alongside this growth have come concerns that hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), a procedure used in the extraction of natural gas and oil, may pollute ground and surface waters. Responding to increasing public pressure for federal action and a call by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Conference Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced 18 March 2010 it will conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the potential adverse effects of fracking on water quality and public health
With the push for energy independence and fuels that emit fewer greenhouse gases, domestically produced natural gas has been growing in popularity. But alongside this growth have come concerns that hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), a procedure used in the extraction of natural gas and oil, may pollute ground and surface waters. Responding to increasing public pressure for federal action and a call by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Conference Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced 18 March 2010 it will conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the potential adverse effects of fracking on water quality and public health
Electricity is needed to extract, treat and convey water. Water service providers recognize that electricity costs constitute one of the biggest operational costs of Water Supply Systems (WSS). The practice of water supply requires new energy management strategies and solutions which need to improve WSS energy and hydraulic efficiency and to be innovative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Three management practices and solutions for WSS are presented and analyzed in this paper. The first solution proposes the installation of a water turbine in gravity pipes for pressure control and for electricity production. The second solution is the optimization of pump operational schedules according to electricity...
With the push for energy independence and fuels that emit fewer greenhouse gases, domestically produced natural gas has been growing in popularity. But alongside this growth have come concerns that hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), a procedure used in the extraction of natural gas and oil, may pollute ground and surface waters. Responding to increasing public pressure for federal action and a call by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Conference Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced 18 March 2010 it will conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the potential adverse effects of fracking on water quality and public health
In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial Variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However. if the benefits of energy...
With the push for energy independence and fuels that emit fewer greenhouse gases, domestically produced natural gas has been growing in popularity. But alongside this growth have come concerns that hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), a procedure used in the extraction of natural gas and oil, may pollute ground and surface waters. Responding to increasing public pressure for federal action and a call by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Conference Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced 18 March 2010 it will conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the potential adverse effects of fracking on water quality and public health