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In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Wind River Formation is the principal source of domestic, municipal, and stock (ranch, agricultural) water in the area of Pavillion and meets the Agency's definition of an Underground Source of Drinking Water. Domestic wells in the area of investigation overlie the Pavillion gas field which consists of 169 production wells which extract gas from the lower Wind River Formation and underlying...
The provision of both electrical and mechanical energy services can play a critical role in poverty alleviation for the almost two billion rural users who currently lack access to electricity. Distributed generation using diesel generators remains a common means of electricity provision for rural communities throughout the world. Due to rising fuel costs, the need to address poverty, and consequences of global warming, it is necessary to develop cost efficient means of reducing fossil fuel consumption in isolated diesel microgrids. Based on a case study in Nicaragua, a set of demand and supply side measures are ordered by their annualized costs in order to approximate an energy supply curve. The curve highlights...
The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds;...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Demand, Dependency, Foreign Oil, Oil
This article compares US and Chinese incentives in winning oil contracts in African countries. Exploration and development of African oil resources has soared, and many nations are competing for these new oil contracts. China has won a significant portion of these oil contracts due to their unique incentive offerings. This report will address a brief history and the development of Sino–African policies and interests, modern US–African energy policy and interests, petroleum opportunities in Africa, China’s growing oil demand, and information on both American and Chinese incentives strategies. This information will be used to compare US and Chinese incentive strategies on winning African oil contracts. Implications...
Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other "green" products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: demand, economic, response
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
The National Toxics Network (NTN) calls on federal and state governments to implement a moratorium on the use of hydraulic drilling and fracturing chemicals (‘fracking chemicals’) used in the hydraulic drilling and fracturing of coal gas seams and gas shale extraction, until the fracking chemicals have been fully assessed for their health and environmental hazards by the industrial chemicals regulator, the National Industrial Chemical Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). NTN’s assessment has found that only 2 out of the 23 most commonly used fracking chemicals in Australia have been assessed by NICNAS. Neither of these 2 chemicals have been specifically assessed for their use in hydraulic drilling and fracking.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Demand, Dependency, Foreign Oil, Oil
In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Wind River Formation is the principal source of domestic, municipal, and stock (ranch, agricultural) water in the area of Pavillion and meets the Agency's definition of an Underground Source of Drinking Water. Domestic wells in the area of investigation overlie the Pavillion gas field which consists of 169 production wells which extract gas from the lower Wind River Formation and underlying...
Hydraulic fracturing is a common method used to improve the productivity of gas-condensate wells. Previous simulation studies have predicted much larger increases in well productivity than observed in the field. This study showed the large effects of non-Darcy flow and condensate accumulation on the productivity of a hydraulically fractured gas-condensate well.
Hydraulic fracturing is a common method used to improve the productivity of gas-condensate wells. Previous simulation studies have predicted much larger increases in well productivity than observed in the field. This study showed the large effects of non-Darcy flow and condensate accumulation on the productivity of a hydraulically fractured gas-condensate well.
Goodstein identified and discussed a "Saturday effect" in data on the timing of tanker oil spills. This comment describes two ways in which the validity of the statistical analysis used to identify and confirm this effect can be strengthened.
Using data for 1971-2008, we estimate the effects of changes in price and income on world oil demand, disaggregated by product - transport oil, fuel oil (residual and heating oil), and other oil - for six groups of countries. Most of the demand reductions since 1973-74 were due to fuel-switching away from fuel oil, especially in the OECD; in addition, the collapse of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) reduced their oil consumption substantially. Demand for transport and other oil was much less price-responsive, and has grown almost as rapidly as income, especially outside the OECD and FSU. World oil demand has shifted toward products and regions that are faster growing and less price-responsive. In contrast to projections...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Demand, Elasticities, Oil
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled “Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration”, with the objective of investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies. which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide, COZ. Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO1 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO1 emissions from the DFSS. External...
President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge...
In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Wind River Formation is the principal source of domestic, municipal, and stock (ranch, agricultural) water in the area of Pavillion and meets the Agency's definition of an Underground Source of Drinking Water. Domestic wells in the area of investigation overlie the Pavillion gas field which consists of 169 production wells which extract gas from the lower Wind River Formation and underlying...
President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge...
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...