We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to (1) measure Phalaris cover and (2) evaluate if the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in Phalaris cover or other forest structure variables. Data are counts of birds collected during 3 surveys within 50m at each site using 10 minute point count methods. Vegetation was sampled using a releve technique at the bird count point within 10m of the point.
Detailed point center quarter sampling (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974) was conducted during late June along a 150-m long transect that started at a bird survey point. Four plots were sampled corresponding to the start, 50m, 100m and end points of each transect. At each of these four sample plots, species, diameter at breast height (dbh) and distance from the center of the plot were recorded tor trees (>8cm dbh) and saplings (≤8cm dbh). Number of standing snags (>8cm dbh and over 2 m tall) within 25m of the plot center were counted. Total basal area of each plot was estimated using a size 10 angle gauge and averaged over the four plots in each transect. As well, height of a representative canopy tree and understory...
Historical (1981-2005) vs. Projected (2031-’55) Yields Showing Major Crops and Models Reported in Arora et al Ag Econ Submission
Historical (1981-2005) vs. Projected (2031-’55) Yields. Each year’s crop yields are calculated as an average of all counties in North and South Dakota. Hashed representations of projected yields are from RCP 4.5 emissions scenario from seven GCMs, namely CESM (Community Earth System Model), CNRM (Center National de Recherches Météorologiques (France)), GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory), GISS (Goddard Institute of Space Studies), HADGEM (Hadley Global Environment Model), IPSL (Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (France)) and MIROC (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate). Median projection in a given year is calculated by taking the median yield value of the yield projections from each of seven climate...
2006 Land Use in the Dakotas (Cropland Data Layer, USDA NASS). The color legend represents various land use types in the region.
Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas 1771) are a tenacious aquatic invasive species in the United States and new infestations can rapidly expand into dense colonies. Zebra mussels were first reported in Marion Lake (Dakota County, Minnesota) in September 2017 and surveys indicated the infestation was likely isolated near the public boat access. A 2.4-hectare area, containing the known zebra mussel infestation, was enclosed and treated for nine days with EarthTec QZ®, a copper-based molluscicide, in an attempt to eradicate the zebra mussels. We conducted an on-site bioassay to confirm treatment efficacy. The bioassay was conducted in mobile assay trailer that received a continuous flow of treated lake water...
Climate-Driven Acreage Changes by 2031-’60 Relative 1981-2005 Showing Major Crops Reported in Arora et al Ag Econ Submission
Land use change ranges in each panel are in acres per thousand county acres. The white colored counties represent missing yields for at least one crop in all years.