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Biological soil crusts, consisting of cyanobacteria, green algae, lichens, and mosses, are important in stabilizing soils in semi-arid and arid lands. Integrity of these crusts is compromised by compressional disturbances such as foot, vehicle, or livestock traffic. Using a portable wind tunnel, we found threshold friction velocities (TFVs) of undisturbed crusts well above wind forces experienced at these sites; consequently, these soils are not vulnerable to wind erosion. However, recently disturbed soils or soils with less well-developed crusts frequently experience wind speeds that exceed the stability thresholds of the crusts. Crustal biomass is concentrated in the top 3 mm of soils. Sandblasting by wind can...
Microbial crusts are present on surfaces of soils throughout the world. A key feature of these crusts in arid zones is the abundance of filamentous sheath-forming and polysaccharide-excreting cyanobacteria. Several isolates of cyanobacteria were prepared from crust samples (Nizzana sand dunes, north-western Negev Desert, Israel). Optimal growth conditions for two such isolates of Microcoleus sp. were defined, and the role of the excreted polysaccharides in affecting the hydrological properties of crust-covered sand dunes was studied. Experiments with the native crust microbial population demonstrated the possibility of net primary productivity at both high relative air humidities and low moisture content. Published...
Cyanobacteria are known to form a crust on soil surfaces holding soil particles together and thereby offering resistance to erosion. A controlled experiment was carried out to throw light on this issue. The experiment consisted of subjecting erosion cups filled with soil to artificial rainfall in the laboratory. Three sets of erosion cups, each set consisting of six, were used. One set consisted of soil with inoculated cyanobacteria and the second set consisted of soil with naturally colonized cyanobacteria, both over a period of about 8 months. The third set consisted of soil with no bacterial growth. The results indicate that the soil erosion cups with the inoculated cyanobacterial crust had at least one order...
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In cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilized various field and laboratory methods to determine the presence and concentration of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in Texas water bodies. This data release documents the results from water-quality samples collected from 41 water bodies in Texas during 2016–19. Both qualitative and quantitative field and laboratory methods were performed. Analyses included phytoplankton taxonomy, measurements of phytoplankton biomass, and concentrations of cyanotoxins, taste-and-odor compounds, and photosynthetic pigments. Water-quality samples were also collected to provide supporting data...
Tags: Benbrook Lake, Braunig Lake, Caddo Lake, Caruth Lake, Cedar Creek Reservoir, All tags...
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From August 2018 to October 2019, the U.S. Geological Survey collected spatially high-resolution water quality data as part of five shoreline synoptic surveys around the perimeters of Owasco, Seneca, and Skaneateles Lakes within the Finger Lakes Region of New York. Water-quality data were collected just below water surface utilizing YSI EXO2 multiparameter sondes and portable nitrate sensors paired with real-time GPS data as part of a HABs monitoring program in the Finger Lakes. In October 2019, water-quality data collection was paired with discrete phytoplankton grab samples on Owasco Lake and Seneca Lake. Phytoplankton grab samples were collected just below water surface with a peristaltic pump at twelve locations...
Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Aquatic Biology, Contaminants, HABS, Finger Lakes, Limnology, New York, All tags...
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This child item data set provides high-resolution, nearshore, spatial water-quality data collected from Owasco Lake, New York, on June 26 and October 8, 2019. All data are reported as raw measured values. Continuous water-quality monitors were mounted to a boat at approximately 0.5-meters below the water surface and used to measure nitrate, chlorophyll fluorescence (fChl), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, phycocyanin fluorescence (fPC), turbidity, pH, and temperature.
Biological soil crusts (BSC) play a major role in water and nutrient fluxes in semi-arid and arid areas, affecting the establishment of vascular plants and contributing to the spatial arrangement of vegetated and open areas. However, little is known regarding their effects on the performance of extant vegetation. By using experimental manipulations (surface soil cutting and herbiciding), we evaluated the effect of the physical structure and the biotic component of smooth biological soil crusts on soil moisture dynamics, and on the nutrient and water status, growth rate, and reproductive effort of Stipa tenacissima tussocks in a semi-arid steppe. Soil moisture content was weakly reduced after cutting the soil surface...
Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily...
Cyanobacteria have evolved a significant environmental adaptation, known as a CO(2)-concentrating-mechanism (CCM), that vastly improves photosynthetic performance and survival under limiting CO(2) concentrations. The CCM functions to transport and accumulate inorganic carbon actively (Ci; HCO(3)(-), and CO(2)) within the cell where the Ci pool is utilized to provide elevated CO(2) concentrations around the primary CO(2)-fixing enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). In cyanobacteria, Rubisco is encapsulated in unique micro-compartments known as carboxysomes. Cyanobacteria can possess up to five distinct transport systems for Ci uptake. Through database analysis of some 33 complete genomic...
We estimated global cyanobacterial biomass in the main reservoirs of cyanobacteria on Earth: marine and freshwater plankton, arid land soil crusts, and endoliths. Estimates were based on typical population density values as measured during our research, or as obtained from literature surveys, which were then coupled with data on global geographical area coverage. Among the marine plankton, the global biomass of Prochlorococcus reaches 120 × 10^12 grams of carbon (g C), and that of Synechoccus some 43 × 10^12 g C. This makes Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, in that order, the most abundant cyanobacteria on Earth. Tropical marine blooms of Trichodesmium account for an additional 10 × 10^12 g C worldwide. In terrestrial...
N limitation to primary production and other ecosystem processes is widespread. To understand the causes and distribution of N limitation, we must understand the controls of biological N fixation. The physiology of this process is reasonably well characterized, but our understanding of ecological controls is sparse, except in a few cultivated ecosystems. We review information on the ecological controls of N fixation in free-living cyanobacteria, vascular plant symbioses, and heterotrophic bacteria, with a view toward developing improved conceptual and simulation models of ecological controls of biological N fixation. A model (Howarth et al. 1999) of cyanobacterial fixation in lakes (where N fixation generally increases...
Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californicus, and Pseudotetracystis compactis. Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed...
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This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides microcystin, chlorophyll, and cell-count data for assessing the effect of salinity tolerance on cyanobacteria associated with a harmful algal bloom in Lake Okeechobee, Florida. All data are reported as raw measured values and are not rounded to USGS significant figures. Water and algal bloom material were collected from Lake Okeechobee, Florida on July 7, 2017. This dataset includes measurements of subsamples taken in the laboratory, collected July 9 to July 17, 2017, at nine different salinity concentrations.
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This child item data set provides phytoplankton data collected from Owasco Lake, New York, on October 8, 2019. Phytoplankton were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level, and abundance (density reported as both natural units and cells) and biovolume are reported. All data are reported as raw calculated values. This dataset includes all routine and quality assurance/quality control samples collected at twelve sampling locations on Owasco Lake.
Categories: Data; Types: Downloadable, Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, Shapefile; Tags: Class, Contaminants, HABS, Division, Family, Finger Lakes, All tags...
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Periphyton is a complex community of detritus, bacteria, fungi, and algae that grows attached to submerged substrates. Assemblage structure data for algae and cyanobacteria from periphyton samples were collected on a monthly basis from 2017 to 2021. Compiled data were reported as absolute abundance (cells) and biovolume per volume as well as absolute abundance (cells) and biovolume per area at four locations increasing in distance East of the L-67 canal in Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA 3) of the Florida Everglades immediately north of Everglades National Park. The periphyton assemblages were analyzed for five sample types including periphyton plates (Plates), invertebrate inclusion and exclusion plates (Inverts),...
Recovery rates of cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts from disturbance were examined. Plots were either undisturbed or scalped, and scalped plots were either inoculated with surrounding biological crust material or left to recover naturally. Natural recovery rates were found to be very slow. Inoculation significantly hastened recovery for the cyanobacterial/green algal component, lichen cover, lichen species richness, and moss cover. Even with inoculation, however, lichen and moss recovery was minimal. Traditional techniques of assessing recovery visually were found to underestimate time for total recovery. Other techniques, such as extraction of chlorophyll a from surface soil and measurement of sheath material accumulation,...
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A study to develop an earth observation monitoring system to detect harmful algal bloom (HABs) presence within selected north Texas reservoirs using satellite imagery was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This data release provides the data collected for this study including site locations, water-quality, phytoplankton, and hyperspectral water surface reflectance data. Data were collected between September of 2019 and December of 2020 at 39 sites distributed across 16 reservoirs and 1 stream. The stream site was sampled in response to an algal bloom in August of 2019 in Austin Tex., and is included herein but the reservoir sites are the focus of this data release. The datasets include all routine and...
This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides time-lapse color photography collected from three sites at Milford Lake, Kansas, during June through November 2017 and June through November 2018. Photographic images are displayed using a .mp4 common multimedia format. Time-lapse cameras were used to visually capture cyanobacterial accumulations and movement throughout Milford Lake, Kansas, at five-minute intervals (South Causeway Camera and Fort Riley Marina Camera) and at fifteen-minute intervals (Wakefield Camera). This dataset includes time-lapse photography collected at three short-term, fixed-site locations as part of a study to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of nutrients and algal constituents...
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This data release contains cyanotoxin concentrations for microcystins, cylindrospermopsins, anatoxins, and saxitoxins assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) on 363 samples collected from 82 surface-water sites located in the Cascade Range in Oregon, and eight sites located outside of the Oregon Cascade Range in Washington and California, during 2016-2020. Three sample types were assessed: 1) benthic colonies and mats of cyanobacteria (n=109), 2) plankton net tows (n=90), and 3) Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking samplers (SPATTs)(n=164).


map background search result map search result map Cyanotoxin Concentration and Phytoplankton Community Composition Data for Surface Water Samples Collected at Lake Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina during summer 2015 Microcystin, chlorophyll, and cell-count data for assessing the effect of salinity tolerance on cyanobacteria associated with a harmful algal bloom in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, July 9 to 17, 2017 Assessment of Field and Laboratory Methods for the Detection and Analyses of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Texas Reservoirs Time-lapse color photography of Milford Lake, Kansas, June through November 2017 and June through November 2018 Surface-water characteristics and phytoplankton taxonomy in selected north Texas reservoirs using biological, hyperspectral, and water-quality methods, 2019-2020 High-resolution spatial water-quality and discrete phytoplankton data, Owasco Lake, Seneca Lake, and Skaneateles Lake, Finger Lakes Region, New York, 2018-2019 Owasco Lake, New York spatial water-quality data, June 26 and October 8, 2019 Owasco Lake, New York, phytoplankton data, October 8, 2019 Decompartmentalization Physical Model (South Florida Water Management District) Periphyton Abundance and Biovolume Data 2017–21 Cyanotoxin concentrations in extracts from cyanobacteria colonies, plankton net tows, and Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) samplers in western rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, including drinking water sources in the Oregon Cascades: 2016-2020 Decompartmentalization Physical Model (South Florida Water Management District) Periphyton Abundance and Biovolume Data 2017–21 Owasco Lake, New York spatial water-quality data, June 26 and October 8, 2019 Owasco Lake, New York, phytoplankton data, October 8, 2019 Cyanotoxin Concentration and Phytoplankton Community Composition Data for Surface Water Samples Collected at Lake Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina during summer 2015 Time-lapse color photography of Milford Lake, Kansas, June through November 2017 and June through November 2018 High-resolution spatial water-quality and discrete phytoplankton data, Owasco Lake, Seneca Lake, and Skaneateles Lake, Finger Lakes Region, New York, 2018-2019 Microcystin, chlorophyll, and cell-count data for assessing the effect of salinity tolerance on cyanobacteria associated with a harmful algal bloom in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, July 9 to 17, 2017 Cyanotoxin concentrations in extracts from cyanobacteria colonies, plankton net tows, and Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) samplers in western rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, including drinking water sources in the Oregon Cascades: 2016-2020 Surface-water characteristics and phytoplankton taxonomy in selected north Texas reservoirs using biological, hyperspectral, and water-quality methods, 2019-2020 Assessment of Field and Laboratory Methods for the Detection and Analyses of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Texas Reservoirs