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The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of...
This report presents the results of a social cost evaluation of three prospective photovoltaic electricity supply technologies. The technologies--based on cadmium sulfide, silicon, and gallium arsenide--are compared with each other and with coal in three categories of direct social impacts: occupational and public health and environmental effects. Indirect impacts, due to opportunity costs and benefits, or to health or other effects of use of material, labor or energy itself, are also considered. Special attention is given to regulatory issues that will arise in connection with these social costs and to their potential importance to government programs and commercial development.
Social effects of building and operating nuclear power plants result from impacts upon (1) socially-valued aspects of the physical environment and (2) the social structure itself. Sudden, temporary population growth during construction may strain financial and organizational resources of rural areas. Large increases in tax base result from operation of privately-owned power plants, affecting tax structures and land use balances in site-specific fashion. Assessment of impacts involves dimensioning with fourteen descriptors, and analysis of impact recipient groups. Dissociation of social costs and benefits may occur (1) through time-lag between costs and benefits, (2) when different groups are beneficiaries and payees,...