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The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of...
This study evaluates the environmental impact of the cement production and its variations between different cement plants, using Life Cycle Impact Assessment. For that purpose, details of the cement production processes are investigated in order to show the respective part of raw materials preparation and clinker production using environmental impacts calculated with CML01 indicators. For the kiln emission data, a European pollutant emission register for French intensive industries is used to quantify the variability of indicators between cement plants. For the CML01 indicators that are controlled by kiln emissions, some of them (i.e. global warming, photochemical oxidation) show variations between cement plants...
In an earlier article the author has argued that the turbulent history of nuclear power in Britain and the USA stems from the technology itself, and has little to do with the very different institutional arrangements made for the new technology in the two countries. Nuclear plant has various features which make its planning extraordinarily difficult. Its long lead time, large unit size, capital intensity and dependence on complex infrastructure combine to ensure that mistakes are likely to be made in planning the technology and that what mistakes do occur are expensive. This article aims to expand on the earlier one in two ways; by looking at the apparent success of the French nuclear programme which seems to run...
This study uses a hedonic price model to estimate the effect of proximity to a ma jor fuel pipeline on housing prices, both before and after a high-profile accident. Using data for Belling ham, Washington, the site of a 1999 rupture and explosion, we find no significant effect of proximity to the pipeline prior to the accident. Following the accident, we find a substantial price effect; however, the effect decays rapidly with distance from the pipe line and also diminishes over time. Results suggest that for this type of environmental hazard, an ad verse event leads to an increase in perceived risk.
This report presents the results of a social cost evaluation of three prospective photovoltaic electricity supply technologies. The technologies--based on cadmium sulfide, silicon, and gallium arsenide--are compared with each other and with coal in three categories of direct social impacts: occupational and public health and environmental effects. Indirect impacts, due to opportunity costs and benefits, or to health or other effects of use of material, labor or energy itself, are also considered. Special attention is given to regulatory issues that will arise in connection with these social costs and to their potential importance to government programs and commercial development.
Social effects of building and operating nuclear power plants result from impacts upon (1) socially-valued aspects of the physical environment and (2) the social structure itself. Sudden, temporary population growth during construction may strain financial and organizational resources of rural areas. Large increases in tax base result from operation of privately-owned power plants, affecting tax structures and land use balances in site-specific fashion. Assessment of impacts involves dimensioning with fourteen descriptors, and analysis of impact recipient groups. Dissociation of social costs and benefits may occur (1) through time-lag between costs and benefits, (2) when different groups are beneficiaries and payees,...
The U.S. continues efforts to develop genetically superior short-rotation woody crops (hybrid poplar and willow) and herbaceous crops (switchgrass). These biomass crops can provide multiple environmental benefits as well as energy and fiber. This paper focuses on results of site-specific studies that are quantifying the environmental potential and ramifications of converting agricultural croplands to biomass crop production. At research-scales, no differences have been found in erosion and movement of nutrients from annual row crops, switchgrass, and tree crops with and without a cover crop in the initial year of establishment. Research- and watershed-scale studies on different soil types, in different regions,...
Broadening the IYamework of enviromnental impact assessment (EIA) involves an e×amination of the principles and policies which should underlie ecologically sustainable development. To work effectively, EIA procedures need to be located within a broad fi'amework of policies and environmental objectives, standards and monitoring. This paper discusses the political and environmental context in Australia within which the debate on sustainable development is occurring. Some important principles which underlie an ecologically sustainable development policy IYamework are discussed, These include inter-generational equity, conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity, maintenance of natural capital and...