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The effects of contemporary logging practices on headwater stream amphibians have received considerable study but with conflicting or ambiguous results. We posit that focusing inference on demographic rates of aquatic life stages may help refine understanding, as aquatic and terrestrial impacts may differ considerably. We investigated in-stream survival and movement of two stream-breeding amphibian species within a before-after timber harvest experiment in the Oregon Coast Range. We used recaptures of marked individuals and a joint probability model of survival, movement, and capture probability, to measure variation in these rates attributed to stream reach, stream gradient, pre- and post-harvest periods, and the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia
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Caecieleotris morrisi, new genus and species of sleeper (family Eleotridae), is described from a submerged freshwater cave in a karst region of the northern portion of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, Río Papaloapan drainage, Gulf of Mexico basin. The new species represents the first cave-adapted sleeper known from the Western Hemisphere and is one of only 13 stygobitic gobiiforms known worldwide, with all others limited in distribution to the Indo-Pacific region. The new taxon represents a third independent evolution of a hypogean lifestyle in sleepers, the others being two species ofOxyeleotris (O. caeca and O. colasi) from New Guinea and a single species, Bostrychus microphthalmus, from Sulawesi. Caecieleotris morrisi,...
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Lepidomeda vittata (the Little Colorado River spinedace) is a cyprinid fish native to the Little Colorado River in Arizona. Mitochondrial DNA and allozymes were used to determine patterns of genetic variation in remaining populations of L. vittata. The pattern of variation observed indicated that genetic diversity was low, but population structure was high because of partitioning of genotypes among samples. Similarity of genotypes suggest current populations are relics from a single, large population that was one continuously distributed throughout the LCR drainage. Patterns of variation were consistent with decreases in population size; however, because of low levels of variation, it was impossible to determine...
The influence of chemical cues on burrow choice by desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) was examined using a series of four two-choice tests of treated and untreated artificial burrows. A total of 32 adult tortoises (16 males, 16 females) were tested during nesting and mating seasons. Treatments included feces from an adult male, feces from an adult female, feces from the subject tortoise, and chin-gland secretion collected from an adult male tortoise. When presented with chin-gland secretion, male tortoises spent more time inside the treated than the untreated burrow during observations,a nd significantlym ore males used the treatedb urrowd uring the mating season. In addition, males were less likely to use the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Copeia
A new species of trout, Salmo apache, is described from the White Mountains of eastern Arizona, in the Gila and Little Colorado River drainages. Specimens collected in 1873, 1915, 1937, and 1950, along with reliable information on trout introductions and study of collections made in the last decade, assure that certain stocks still persisting today are pure. Survival of the species has been greatly aided by the foresight of the White Mountain Apache Tribe. A second trout, Salmo gilae Miller (described from New Mexico), was also native to Arizona (as shown by 1888-1889 material from Oak Creek) but was eliminated after 1900. Salmo apache is distinguished by a set of characters involving life colors, spotting, body...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation, Journal Citation; Tags: Copeia
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We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (-3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 females, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8-35. All viable clutches from Kukenan were attended by an adult. One clutch of 13 eggs from Ilu-tepui was without an attendant adult. Calls of Kukenan males consist of 9-16 partially pulsed notes given at a rate of 5-7 notes per second. Calls and notes were modulated and increased or decreased in frequency; dominant frequencies of the calls ranged between 2650-3650 Hz....
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While previous studies have shown that evolutionary divergence alters ecological processes in small-scale experiments, a major challenge is to assess whether such evolutionary effects are important in natural ecosystems at larger spatial scales. At the landscape scale, across eight streams in the Caroni drainage, we found that the presence of locally adapted populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is associated with reduced algal biomass and increased invertebrate biomass, while the opposite trends were true in streams with experimentally introduced populations of non-locally adapted guppies. Exclusion experiments conducted in two separate reaches of a single stream showed that guppies with locally adapted...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia
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Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia
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The Yellowcheek Darter (Etheostoma moorei) is a rare fish endemic to the Little Red River watershed in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas. Remaining populations of this species are geographically isolated and declining, and the species was listed in 2011 as federally endangered. Populations have declined, in part, due to intense seasonal stream drying and inundation of lower reaches by a reservoir. We used a kick seine sampling approach to examine distribution and abundance of Yellowcheek Darter populations in the Middle Fork and South Fork Little Red River. We used presence data to estimate occupancy rates and detection probability and examined relationships between Yellowcheek Darter density and environmental...
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During the course of experimental fishing operations conducted by the staff of Hammond Bay Fishery Laboratory (a field station of Great Lakes Fishery Investigations) in 1950-1951, length measurements and records of scarring incidence and number of scars per individual were obtained for a sample of 552 white suckers, Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede). The results of this study indicate that if information on the incidence of sea lamprey scars on white suckers is to be used to judge the relative abundance of sea lampreys and the damages inflicted by that parasite on the sucker stock, data must include records of the lengths of fish. It is to be suspected strongly that a similar conclusion applies in other localities...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia
Genetic variation was studied in two species of toads, Bufo cognatus and B. speciosus by electrophoresis of six proteins, controlled by 10 loci. Five of the loci examined were essentially monomorphic, both species sharing the same fixed allele at each locus. The other five loci were polymorphic. The primary differences between B. cognatus and B. speciosus at these five loci were in frequencies of shared alleles, with a few rare alleles that are unique to each species. The average percentages of the 10 loci that were polymorphic in each sample were 42% and 52% in B. speciosus and B. cognatus, respectively. The corresponding average percentages of heterozygous loci per individual were 10.7% and 12.1%. These estimates...
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The native fish fauna of the American southwest is in decline as a result of habitat destruction, disruption of natural water flows, and introduction of nonnative species. The status of several members of the cyprinid genus Gila occurring in the upper Colorado River basin is particularly tenuous, in part because of uncertainty regarding their taxonomic status. To examine this uncertainty, we have sampled 363 specimens of G. robusta and G. cypha from eight localities in the upper Colorado River basin and the Grand Canyon and used canonical discriminant and cluster analysis to categorize patterns of morphological variation at three levels of biological organization. At the population level, all sampled populations...
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Chromosome studies of native populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead and rainbow trout) in western Washington and southern British Columbia revealed the presence of two evolutionarily distinct chromosome lineages. Populations between, and including, the Elwha River, Washington, and Chilliwack River, British Columbia, contained 2n = 60 chromosomes. Populations on the central Washington coast contained 2n = 58 chromosomes. The north Washington coast and western Strait of Juan de Fuca contained individuals with 58, 59, or 60 chromosomes, suggesting this is a transition zone between 58 and 60 chromosome groups. The differences in chromosomal structure between 2n = 58 and 2n = 60 groups are presumably a Robertsonian...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia
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Advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has allowed conservation biologists to use small portions of tissue to obtain genetic material for population genetic and taxonomic study. Fin clips are used extensively in large-sized fishes, but it is unclear how clipping enough fin tissue for genetic analysis will affect survival of smaller fishes such as minnows and darters, which are among the most threatened organisms in North America. We tested for effects of fin clipping on survival and swimming performance of non-threatened Brown Darters (Etheostoma edwini) in order to justify similar tissue collection in co-occurring endangered Okaloosa Darters (E. okaloosae). We collected 48 E. edwini from a small stream in...
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Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and...
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Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the...
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Review of: Keeping All the Pieces: Perspectives on Natural History and the Environment. Whit Gibbons. University of Georgia, Press, 2010. ISBN: 0820332488.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Copeia


map background search result map search result map Population Genetics of Lepidomeda vittata, the Little Colorado River Spinedace Population Genetics of Lepidomeda vittata, the Little Colorado River Spinedace