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Lepidomeda vittata (the Little Colorado River spinedace) is a cyprinid fish native to the Little Colorado River in Arizona. Mitochondrial DNA and allozymes were used to determine patterns of genetic variation in remaining populations of L. vittata. The pattern of variation observed indicated that genetic diversity was low, but population structure was high because of partitioning of genotypes among samples. Similarity of genotypes suggest current populations are relics from a single, large population that was one continuously distributed throughout the LCR drainage. Patterns of variation were consistent with decreases in population size; however, because of low levels of variation, it was impossible to determine...
The influence of chemical cues on burrow choice by desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) was examined using a series of four two-choice tests of treated and untreated artificial burrows. A total of 32 adult tortoises (16 males, 16 females) were tested during nesting and mating seasons. Treatments included feces from an adult male, feces from an adult female, feces from the subject tortoise, and chin-gland secretion collected from an adult male tortoise. When presented with chin-gland secretion, male tortoises spent more time inside the treated than the untreated burrow during observations,a nd significantlym ore males used the treatedb urrowd uring the mating season. In addition, males were less likely to use the...
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A new species of trout, Salmo apache, is described from the White Mountains of eastern Arizona, in the Gila and Little Colorado River drainages. Specimens collected in 1873, 1915, 1937, and 1950, along with reliable information on trout introductions and study of collections made in the last decade, assure that certain stocks still persisting today are pure. Survival of the species has been greatly aided by the foresight of the White Mountain Apache Tribe. A second trout, Salmo gilae Miller (described from New Mexico), was also native to Arizona (as shown by 1888-1889 material from Oak Creek) but was eliminated after 1900. Salmo apache is distinguished by a set of characters involving life colors, spotting, body...
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Genetic variation was studied in two species of toads, Bufo cognatus and B. speciosus by electrophoresis of six proteins, controlled by 10 loci. Five of the loci examined were essentially monomorphic, both species sharing the same fixed allele at each locus. The other five loci were polymorphic. The primary differences between B. cognatus and B. speciosus at these five loci were in frequencies of shared alleles, with a few rare alleles that are unique to each species. The average percentages of the 10 loci that were polymorphic in each sample were 42% and 52% in B. speciosus and B. cognatus, respectively. The corresponding average percentages of heterozygous loci per individual were 10.7% and 12.1%. These estimates...
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The native fish fauna of the American southwest is in decline as a result of habitat destruction, disruption of natural water flows, and introduction of nonnative species. The status of several members of the cyprinid genus Gila occurring in the upper Colorado River basin is particularly tenuous, in part because of uncertainty regarding their taxonomic status. To examine this uncertainty, we have sampled 363 specimens of G. robusta and G. cypha from eight localities in the upper Colorado River basin and the Grand Canyon and used canonical discriminant and cluster analysis to categorize patterns of morphological variation at three levels of biological organization. At the population level, all sampled populations...
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We evaluated patterns of space use, activity, and agonistic interactions between young Ptychocheilus lucius, an endangered cyprinid, and similar-size individuals of native and non-native fishes (i.e., Catostomus latipinnis, Notropis lutrensis, Richardsonius balteatus, Pimephales promelas, Lepomis cyanellus, and Ameiurus melas), which co-occur in shoreline riverine habitats. Vertical distribution of P. lucius was most similar to that of L. cyanellus and R. balteatus. We detected no overt shifts in vertical space use by P. lucius due to the presence of non-native fishes. Lepomis cyanellus, N. lutrensis, and Pimephales promelas initiated more interspecific aggression than Ptychocheilus lucius. Agonistic behavior in...
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Population sizes, movements, and potential hybridization were examined for two indigenous Colorado River fishes, Catostomus latipinnis (flannelmouth sucker) and Xyrauchen texanus (razorback sucker) in the Little Colorado River (LCR) of Grand Canyon National Park and the Navajo Nation (Coconino County, AZ). Catostomus latipinnisis a "species of concern," and X. texanusis federally listed as endangered. Within Grand Canyon, both occur in greatest abundance in the LCR and its confluence with the mainstem Colorado River. During a 50-trip period (1 July 1991-27 June 1995), 2619 unique individuals (> 150 mm TL) were evaluated, consisting of 2578 C. latipinnis and 41 putative X. texanus/C. latipinnis hybrids. Cormack-Jolly-...
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Putative hybrid toads of the genus Bufo were collected in central Arizona and identified using allozymes, qualitative and qalsntitative morphological characters, and release call characteristics. Data suggest one hybrid resulted from mating between Bufoc ognatusa nd Bufow oodhousiia, nd the other three resulted from matings between Bufo alvariusa nd B. woodhousiiN. atural hybridizationb etween these taxa has not been previouslyr eported. To date, B. woodhousihi as been found to hybridize with four species of the Bufoa mericanussp ecies group, of which B. woodhousiiis a member, and five other species which represent three outgroups to the B. americanus group. Fossil evidence suggests some genomic compatability has...
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Univariate and multivariate techniques were used to evaluate sexual dimorphism in 53 morphometric measures taken from 63 adult specimens of an endangered cyprinid, the humpback chub (Gila cypha). Specimens were filmed and released unharmed after their capture in the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers of the Grand Canyon (Arizona). Morphometric data were later extracted from film using a microcomputer and image analysis software. Because of the unique morphology of this fish, analyses emphasized its anterodorsal hump. Only two of 53 characters (3.8%) revealed significant sexual dimorphism in an analysis of covariance; approximately what one would expect from chance alone (i.e., one in 20, or 5%). A discriminant...
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Various accounts of aggregation by amphibians are scattered throughout the herpetological literature. While an aggregate may be considered any statistically improbable cluster of animals, aggregates vary greatly in the mean spatial distance between individuals and in their mechanism and reason of formation. Social aggregates (Bragg, 1954) are comprised of individuals responding solely to the presence of conspecifics, whereas "asocial" aggregates result from individuals responding to external stimuli other than conspecifics. Social aggregations commonly occur in a variety of anuran larvae (see Wassersug, 1973 for summary of literature) but are far less common in postmetamorphic, nonreproductive frogs. We here report...
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Crotalus cerastes was predominantly nocturnal, while C. mitchelli was mainly diurnal in the spring and fall and nocturnal during the summer months from June to September. The normal activity range of C. mitchelli (18.8-39.3 C) was narrower than that of C. cerastes (13.6-40.8 C). The overall preferred body temperature (April to December) of C. mitchelli (31.2 C) was significantly higher than that of C. cerastes (25.8 C). By being active at different times of the day during some months of the year, competition between these two species is reduced. Published in Copeia, volume 1978, issue 3, on pages 439 - 442, in 1978.
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Evaporative water loss from the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, credited to Minnich, John E, published in 1970. Published in Copeia, volume 1970, issue 3, on pages 575 - 578, in 1970.
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Chemical analyses and bioassays of mine drainage were made to determine if it could be a factor accounting for the absence of amphibians from Clear Creek County, Colorado. The concentrations of hydrogen ion, iron, copper and zinc in the drainage were all individually much greater than the tolerance levels of premetamorphic toads. The lethality of the drainage was found to be of such a magnitude that it required diluting approximately one thousand times before larvae could survive in it. Boreal toad (Bufo boreas) larvae are more resistant to acidity than most fish but are very similar to other anuran larvae and salmonids in their sensitivity to copper and zinc. Published in Copeia, volume 1976, issue 2, on pages...
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Three hundred and nine specimens of Gila from the Colorado River basin were studied by taximetrics analysis. Results of the study indicate that the concept of ecosubspecies or ecological subspecies does not fit Colorado basin Gila. The roundtail and bonytail chubs, G. robusta Baird and Girard and G. elegans Baird and Girard respectively, currently treated as subspecies, are well separated morphologically, ecologically, and apparently reproductively and therefore, are better considered two species. The relationship between G. cypha Miller, the humpback chub, and G. elegans is clouded by the presence of intergrade forms. Future investigations are needed to resolve this problem. Insufficient material was available...
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We mapped 112 restriction sites in the mitochondrial DNA genome of the Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys osculus), a small cyprinid fish broadly distributed in western North America. These data were used to derive a molecular phylogeny that was contrasted against the hydrographic evolution of the region. Although haplotypic variation was extensive among our 59 sampled populations and 104 individuals, their fidelity to current drainage basins was a hallmark of the study. Two large clades, representing the Colorado and Snake Rivers, were prominent in our results. The Colorado River clade was divided into four cohesive and well-defined subbasins that arose in profound isolation as an apparent response to regional aridity...
Some species of toads (genus Bufo) can use celestial cues for orientation on a compass course that intersects the "home" shoreline at right angles (Ferguson and Landreth, 1966; Gorman and Ferguson, 1970). This orientation, termed "Y-axis orientation" by Ferguson (1967) and observed in many anurans (Ferguson et al., 1965; Ferguson et al., 1967; Ferguson et al., 1968; Landreth and Ferguson, 1966; Landreth and Ferguson, 1967), involves movement in a direction which, had the animals been displaced directly inland or offshore from their capture sites, would result in their return to the shoreline. Tracy and Dole (1969a) reported the adult Bufo boreas able to use celestial phenomenon to orient in the direction of their...
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Qualitative scoring is frequently overlooked in preference to counts or measurements of individual characters, particularly for species whose overlap in morphology makes clear separation difficult. Quantitative measurements and counts of single characters were compared to qualitative rankings of selected morphological features of chubs (genus Gila) from the Yampa River, Colorado. Data were collected by technicians with no specialized training in systematics. A high degree of morphological variability confounded identification using the quantitative data set, while principal components analysis of qualitative data clearly separated Gila cypha (humpback chub) and G. robusta (roundtail chub). Totals of 32 G. cypha...
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Predation by ravens (Corvus corax) on western toads (Bufo boreas) was observed at three of 15 toad explosive breeding aggregations. At one aggregation, over 20% of the toad annual breeding population was killed and found eviscerated near the communal breeding site. Predation was observed when toads were breeding in shallow water, 5-25 cm deep, but not when toads remained in deeper water. During censusing of toads, paired males released their mates before oviposition more often at aggregations with predation. There were some body size differences between toads in mating pairs that remained together and pairs in which males released their mates. At one aggregation, releasing males were larger than non-releasing males,...
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As data accumulate for temperature regulation in lizards it becomes apparent that mean body temperatures in the field and in a laboratory gradient may differ significantly. This is true for both diurnal (De Witt, 1967; Licht, 1968, McGinnis, 1966) and nocturnal (Bustard, 1967) species. Since preferred temperatures are often used in the evaluation of other reptilian functions such as hearing sensitivity (Campbell, 1969), thermal tolerance (Kour and Hutchison, 1970) and spermatogenesis (Licht, 1965), more studies directed towards documentation of temperature parameters seem appropriate. I have tried to determine more precisely the preferred body temperature (PBT) and temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum...
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Habitat use and associations of native and nonnative fish species in secondary channels of the San Juan River, New Mexico and Utah were investigated. Most species and age classes within species (larvae, juveniles, subadults, and adults) used low velocity habitats with silt substrata. Discriminant function analysis revealed broad overlap in habitat use among species, with a trend of older age classes occurring in deeper habitats with faster current velocities. Overall, discriminant function analysis was able to correctly classify species and age classes, based on habitat use, 23.4% of the time. Native juvenile fishes exhibited the greatest interspecific association with nonnative fishes, whereas adult and subadult...
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map background search result map search result map Population Genetics of Lepidomeda vittata, the Little Colorado River Spinedace Population and survival estimates of Catostomus latipinnis in northern Grand Canyon, with distribution and abundance of hybrids with Xyrauchen texanus Population Genetics of Lepidomeda vittata, the Little Colorado River Spinedace Population and survival estimates of Catostomus latipinnis in northern Grand Canyon, with distribution and abundance of hybrids with Xyrauchen texanus