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This study proposes the use of several problems of unstable steady state convection with variable fluid density in a porous layer of infinite horizontal extent as two-dimensional (2-D) test cases for density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport simulators. Unlike existing density-dependent model benchmarks, these problems have well-defined stability criteria that are determined analytically. These analytical stability indicators can be compared with numerical model results to test the ability of a code to accurately simulate buoyancy driven flow and diffusion. The basic analytical solution is for a horizontally infinite fluid-filled porous layer in which fluid density decreases with depth. The proposed...
A convective precipitation model for use in regions of complex terrain has been developed and applied to the Gunnison River Basin in southwestern Colorado. Spring snowfall in the Rocky Mountain region often has a significant convective component which orographic precipitation models are unable to simulate. Additionally, summertime precipitation is predominately convective in this area and is responsible for a large portion of summer streamflow variability. Streamflow typically increases by 50 to 100 percent of baseflow for moderate rainfall events for periods of up to one week. Larger precipitation episodes can produce peak discharges that exceed the spring snowmelt peaks. Convective precipitation also is important...