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This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...
This paper summarizes the main results of a study on the costs of abatement of CO2 emissions in Brazil. It discusses three possible futures for the long run (2010 and 2025) activity of the Brazilian economy and -- with the help of a linear programming model for Brazil's energy sector -- three scenarios for energy production and use. One of these scenarios illustrates the possibility of halving future carbon emissions originating from energy generation and consumption, with relatively small increases in energy associated costs and investments. This abatement scenario would require, on the supply side of the Brazilian energy balance, increased amounts of hydropower, ethanol and bagasse from sugarcane, plus wood and...
In this paper, we present an economic analysis of CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This technique entails injection of CO2 into mature oil fields in a manner that reduces the oil's viscosity, thereby enhancing the rate of extraction. As part of this process, significant quantities of CO2 remain sequestered in the reservoir. If CO2 emissions are regulated, oil producers using EOR should therefore be able to earn revenues from sequestration as well as from oil production. We develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the dynamic co-optimization of oil extraction and CO2 sequestration, through the producer's choice of the fraction of CO2 in the injection stream at each moment. We find that the optimal fraction of...
Stabilising the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere at a level of 450 ppm in order to keep global temperature increase below 2 °C requires an ambitious climate policy. This study analyses the role of different technologies in the EU-27 with regard to efficiency improvements, fuel switching and energy saving measures under such a climate policy target. The analysis is carried out using the regionalised Pan-European TIMES energy system model, a technology oriented, linear optimisation model. Thereby limited resources and import potentials of various energy carriers, competition among different sectors and the country-specific differences in energy demand are taken into account. As a result, it turns out that the...
Nations must work together to minimize the risk of global warming. A worldwide energy efficiency campaign - led and coordinated by an International Energy Efficiency Agency (IEEA) - could be a critical component in such an effort. The IEEA could: I) strengthen energy efficiency efforts in industrialized countries; 2) help to build capability for implementing energy efficiency improvements in developing and East European countries; 3) provide capital for large-scale energy efficiency investments in developing and East European nations. Appropriate activities for the IEEA include information dissemination; joint R& D programrues; demonstration of technologies as well as policy instruments; training or supporting national...
Firm estimates have been given of the oil, gas and gas-liquid reserves that Mexico is likely to develop in the next decade or more. But the decision has yet to be made as to how fast and how far its energy resources should be developed. One faction, including the Pemex technocrats, believe that foreign capital should be utilized with all speed, to accelerate Mexico's export of energy products, especially to the US. Another group argues that the development of domestic and agrarian enterprises should be granted a higher priority. The resolution of the debate, and the recovery of the world oil market, will determine whether Mexico will become one of the richest or the most unstable of the oil exporters in the Third...
The U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model was applied to basins in 14 different hydroclimatic regions to determine the sensitivity and variability of the freshwater resources of the United States in the face of current climate-change projections. Rather than attempting to choose a most likely scenario from the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an ensemble of climate simulations from five models under three emissions scenarios each was used to drive the basin models. Climate-change scenarios were generated for PRMS by modifying historical precipitation and temperature inputs; mean monthly climate change was derived by calculating changes in mean climates...
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Current density (birds per hectare) model of Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) using a Boosted Regression Tree model (Hastie & Tibshirani 2000) informed by breeding season avian point count data, modeled vegetation types, and climate data from PRISM (Daly et al. 2004) averaged for the years 1971-2000.
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This package contains 13 polygon layers representing baseline and predicted future climate niches (2050s & 2080s) of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). The modeling algorithm Maxent and the Worldclim predictor set have been used to compute niche projections under two emission scenarios (A1B & A2A) based on three general circulation models (CSIRO, CCCMA & HADCM3). The shapefiles are derived from gridded model outputs with a grid cell resolution of 30 arc-seconds.
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For his MS thesis, Brendan Rogers used the vegetation model MC1 to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget and wild fire impacts across the western 2/3 of the states of Oregon and Washington using climate input data from the PRISM group (Chris Daly, OSU) at a 30arc second (800m) spatial grain. The model was run from 1895 to 2100 assuming that nitrogen demand from the plants was always met so that the nitrogen concentrations in various plant parts never dropped below their minimum reported values. A CO2 enhancement effect increased productivity and water use efficiency as the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased. Future climate change scenarios were generated through statistical...
Mountain streams provide important habitats for many species, but their faunas are especially vulnerable to climate change because of ectothermic physiologies and movements that are constrained to linear networks that are easily fragmented. Effectively conserving biodiversity in these systems requires accurate downscaling of climatic trends to local habitat conditions, but downscaling is difficult in complex terrains given diverse microclimates and mediation of stream heat budgets by local conditions. We compiled a stream temperature database (n = 780) for a 2500-km river network in central Idaho to assess possible trends in summer temperatures and thermal habitat for two native salmonid species from 1993 to 2006....
• Theoretical and empirical research has supported the hypothesis that plant–plant interactions change from competition to facilitation with increasing abiotic stress. However, the consistency of such changes has been questioned in arid and semiarid ecosystems. • During a drought in the semiarid south-western USA, we used observations and a field experiment to examine the interactions between juveniles of a foundation tree (Pinyon pine, Pinus edulis ) and a common shrub (Apache plume, Fallugia paradoxa ) in replicated areas of high and low stress. • The presence of F. paradoxa reduced P. edulis performance at low-stress sites, but had the opposite effect at high-stress sites. However, the intensity of the...


map background search result map search result map Baseline and predicted future climate niches of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) based on three general circulation models and two emission scenarios Simulated runoff under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) in nillimeters for the Pacific Northwest, USA Warbling Vireo Current Density (Gaussian) Warbling Vireo Current Density (Gaussian) Simulated runoff under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) in nillimeters for the Pacific Northwest, USA Baseline and predicted future climate niches of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) based on three general circulation models and two emission scenarios