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Winterfat (Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J.T. Howell, syn. Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq., syn. Krascheninnikovia lanata Gueldenstaedt) seeds possess an after-ripening requirement to break dormancy. Germination responses of winterfat seeds to ethanol, gibberellic acid (GA3), citric acid and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) were tested in the laboratory to determine their ability to break dormancy. Ethanol, GA3 and citric acid promoted, while NaNO3 inhibited germination. Ethanol promoted fast and synchronous germination. Promotion of germination by GA3 or citric acid was weak during the test period. Citric acid damaged the radicles of seedlings. Soaking winterfat seeds in 600 to 1,000 mM ethanol for 4 to 8 hours is recommended, as...
Phenolic acids (caffeic, CAF; protocatechuic, PCA; p-coumaric, COU; and vanillic, VAN), catechol (CAT), poly-galacturonic acid (PGA), and citric acid (CIT) were compared for their effectiveness in phosphorus (P) mobilization in three soils differing in chemical properties. The addition of organic ligands at 100 ?mol g- 1 soil increased the concentrations of resin P (Pr), water-extractable P (Pw), and bicarbonate-extractable inorganic P (Pbi), thus improving the phosphorus availability. The magnitude of P mobilization in the calcareous soil can be expressed in the following order: CAF > CAT > PCA = CIT > VAN > COU > PGA, which was consistent with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups they contained and the position...