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Wildlife managers in northwestern Colorado have had difficulty accurately estimating numbers of subadult male elk (Cervus elaphus) by sampling winter population densities and sex ratios. We investigated emigration and survival of telemetered 2-year-old male elk in a trophy hunting area in a northwestern Colorado Game Management Unit (GMU) to evaluate management strategies. We hypothesized that skewed numbers of males resulted from high subadult mortality or dispersal of subadult males. We used telemetered elk and Kaplan-Meier staggered entry methods to estimate emigration probability of 0.56 and 0.33 in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Maximum distances moved by emigrants from their capture point averaged 87 km (median...
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Elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in Rocky Mountain National Park are higher than at any time in the past century, and heavy browsing by elk may interfere with aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) regneration. We used aerial photographs to identify all aspen stands within Rocky Mountain National Park, and all aspen stands within the elk winter range range (defined as 2400 to 2800 m elevation) in three portions of the adjacent Roosevelt National Forest. From this population of aspen stands, we randomly selected 57 stands for evaluation of aspen regeneration. Stands that contained stems younger than 30 years and taller than 2.5 m tall were classified as regenerating successfully. Only 20% of the aspen stands in Estes...
The resilience of willow (Salix monticola Bebb, Salix geyeriana Anderss., Salix planifolia Pursh) stems released from intense elk (Cervus elaphus) browsing in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, was quantified in 1998 with a retrospective study that compared biomass, number, and length of segments on willow stems located inside (protected) and outside (browsed) elk exclosures. Segment biomass increased each year after protection by about 3?12 g year?1 on browsed stems and 10?27 g year?1 on protected stems. The number of segments on stems was similar for browsed and protected stems in the first 2 years after exclusion but differed in the next 3 years, when they increased exponentially on protected stems. Nearly...
The study of sexual segregation has received increasing attention over the last two decades. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the existence of sexual segregation, such as the "predation risk hypothesis," the "forage selection hypothesis," and the "activity budget hypothesis." Testing which hypothesis drives sexual segregation is hampered, however, by the lack of consensus regarding a formal measurement of sexual segregation. By using a derivation of the well-known chi-square (here called the sexual segregation and aggregation statistic [SSAS]) instead of existent segregation coefficients, we offer a reliable way to test for temporal variation in the occurrence of sexual segregation and aggregation,...
Historical inventories of sand bar number and area are sufficient to detect large-scale differences in geomorphic adjustment among regulated rivers that flow through canyons with abundant debris fans. In these canyons, bedrock and large boulders create constrictions and expansions, and alluvial bars occur in associated eddies at predictable sites. Although these bars may fluctuate considerably in size, the locations of these bars rarely change, and their characteristics can be compared through time and among rivers. The area of sand bars exposed at low discharge in Hells Canyon has decreased 50 percent since dam closure, and most of the erosion occurred in the first nine years after dam closure. The number and size...
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Conclusions: Elk consistently selected for big basin sagebrush, greasewood, and tree cover; and consistently selected against Wyoming sagebrush, mixed shrub, and bare ground/sand. Selection patterns were similar during the winter, except big basin sagebrush and mixed shrubs were selected in proportion to their availability. Elk tend to prefer areas characterized by edge habitat where quality forage and cover habitats are in close proximity to one another. Thresholds/Learnings: Elk use was highest in summer in areas characterized by diverse habitats and >2800m away from major roads. High use areas during winter were similar, although elk tended to use areas slightly closer to roads (>2100m away), which is largely...
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This data set represents statewide migration corridors or routes for elk (Cervus elaphus) within the state of Wyoming. The original data was compiled by the Wyoming Game & Fish Department and produced on mylar map overlays which corresponded to U.S. Bureau of Land Management 1:100,000 scale quadrangle maps. Wyoming Open Spaces Initiative at the University of Wyoming digitized this hardcopy data to develop the original GIS layers in 2002. These have since been updated and continue to be maintained by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department.
Beaver (Castor canadensis) populations have declined or failed to recover in heavily browsed envi­ronments. I suggest that intense browsing by livestock or ungulates can disrupt beaver-willow (Salix spp.) mutu­alisms that likely evolved under relatively low herbivory in a more predator-rich environment, and that this inter­ action may explain beaver and willow declines. Field experiments in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, found the interaction of beaver and elk (Cervus elaphus) herbivory suppressed compensatory growth in wil­low. Intense elk browsing of simulated beaver-cut willow produced plants which were small and hedged with a high percentage of dead stems, whereas protected plants were large...
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Conclusions: Elk habitat selection ratios varied in response to road pattern. Regularly spaced roads negatively influenced habitat selection, whereas a clumped pattern supported larger blocks of road-free habitat. Road density threshold at which elk could still occur in high numbers: 1.5 km/km⊃2; Thresholds/Learnings: Road density threshold at which elk could still occur in high numbers: 1.5 km/km⊃2; Synopsis: This study tested 3 aspects of an elk road density model to determine patterns of elk behavior relative to road density and configuration. The study compared model predictions with observed values of elk habitat selection at varying levels of road density. It also compared the effect of different spatial...


    map background search result map search result map Elk migration corridors for Wyoming at 1:100,000 Aspen regeneration in the Colorado Front Range: differences at local and landscape scales Elk distribution and modeling in relation to roads Seasonal distribution and habitat use patterns of elk in the Jack Morrow Hills Planning Area Elk distribution and modeling in relation to roads Aspen regeneration in the Colorado Front Range: differences at local and landscape scales Seasonal distribution and habitat use patterns of elk in the Jack Morrow Hills Planning Area Elk migration corridors for Wyoming at 1:100,000