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Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped...
Biomassfu els currently (1994) supplya round1 4% of the world’se nergy,b ut most of this is in the form of traditional fuelwood, residuesa ndd ung, which is often inefficienta nd can be environmentallyd etrimental.B iomassc an supplyh eat and electricity, liquid and gaseousfu els. A numbero f developedc ountriesd erive a significanta mounto f their primary energy from biomassU: SA 4%, Finland 18%, Sweden1 6%a ndA ustria 13%.P resentlyb iomasse nergy suppliesa t least2 EJ year-’ in WesternE uropew hich is about4 % of primarye nergy (54 ET). Estimates howa likely potentiali n Europei n 2050o f 9.0-13.5 El dependingo n land areas(1 0%o f useablela nd, 33 Mha), yields (lo-15 oven-dry tonnes( ODt) ha-‘), and recoverabler...
In this paper, we present an economic analysis of CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This technique entails injection of CO2 into mature oil fields in a manner that reduces the oil's viscosity, thereby enhancing the rate of extraction. As part of this process, significant quantities of CO2 remain sequestered in the reservoir. If CO2 emissions are regulated, oil producers using EOR should therefore be able to earn revenues from sequestration as well as from oil production. We develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the dynamic co-optimization of oil extraction and CO2 sequestration, through the producer's choice of the fraction of CO2 in the injection stream at each moment. We find that the optimal fraction of...
Our objective is to improve the scientific understanding of the modes, rates, and mechanisms of carbon stabilization and losses in soils from Alaska, California, and other Western states. We focus on the biophysical and microbial mechanisms that drive carbon gains and losses, and to use our data to improve models of soil carbon cycling. This catalog supports research from several projects focused on soil carbon cycling. It encompasses multiple types of datasets including environmental, ecological, biological, isotopic, mineralogical, genomic, flux, and modeled data from water, vegetation, soil, and atmospheric matrices. The catalog will be available online and to the public. Therefore, publication of data through...
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A subset of the Louisiana's 2017 Coastal Master Plan model output was used to estimate the potential climate mitigation role of Louisiana’s coastal area. Model output of surface water salinity, land/water classification, and area of eight habitats for elapsed years of 6, 11, 16, 26, and 36 were post-processed to estimate habitat areas at years of 2020, 2025, 2030, 2040, and 2050, that align with the Governor of Louisiana’s greenhouse gas reduction targets. In addition, the Louisiana coastal boundary and a static mask of upland and developed area were used to define the coastal area. The modeled habitat areas with literature review of net ecosystem carbon balance fluxes per habitat were used in an analytical framework...
Reactions between CO2-charged brines and reservoir minerals might either enhance the long-term storage of CO2 in geological reservoirs or facilitate leakage by corroding cap rocks and fault seals. Modelling the progress of such reactions is frustrated by uncertainties in the absolute mineral surface reaction rates and the significance of other rate limiting steps in natural systems. Here we use the chemical evolution of groundwater from the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, part of a leaking natural accumulation of CO2 at Green River, Utah, in the Colorado Plateau, USA, to place constraints on the rates and potential controlling mechanisms of the mineral–fluid reactions, under elevated CO2 pressures, in a natural system....
Increases in net primary production (NPP) may not necessarily result in increased C sequestration since an increase in uptake can be negated by concurrent increases in ecosystem C losses via respiratory processes. Continuous measurements of net ecosystem C exchange between the atmosphere and two experimental cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) ecosystems in large dynamic flux chambers (EcoCELLs) showed net ecosystem C losses to the atmosphere in excess of 300 g C m?2 over two growing cycles. Even a doubling of net ecosystem production (NEP) after N fertilization in the second growing season did not compensate for soil C losses incurred during the fallow period. Fertilization not only increased C uptake in biomass but...
Some forms of renewable energy have long contributed to electricity generation, whereas others are just emerging. For example, large-scale hydropower is a mature technology generating about 16% of global electricity, and many smaller scale systems are also being installed worldwide. Future opportunities to improve the technology are limited but include upgrading of existing plants to gain greater performance efficiencies and reduced maintenance. Geothermal energy, widely used for power generation and direct heat applications, is also mature, but new technologies could improve plant designs, extend their lifetimes, and improve reliability. By contrast, ocean energy is an emerging renewable energy technology. Design,...
Some forms of renewable energy have long contributed to electricity generation, whereas others are just emerging. For example, large-scale hydropower is a mature technology generating about 16% of global electricity, and many smaller scale systems are also being installed worldwide. Future opportunities to improve the technology are limited but include upgrading of existing plants to gain greater performance efficiencies and reduced maintenance. Geothermal energy, widely used for power generation and direct heat applications, is also mature, but new technologies could improve plant designs, extend their lifetimes, and improve reliability. By contrast, ocean energy is an emerging renewable energy technology. Design,...
For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas:• The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial,...
Carbon sequestration has been well recognized as a viable option to slow the rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. The main goals of this study were to assess the carbon sequestration potential (CSP) by afforestation of marginal agricultural land (MagLand) and to identify hotspots for potential afforestation activities in the U.S. Midwest region (Michigan (MI), Indiana (IN), Ohio, Kentucky (KY), West Virginia, Pennsylvania (PA) and Maryland (MD)). The 1992 USGS National Land Cover Dataset and the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database were used to determine MagLand. Two forest types (coniferous and deciduous) and two management practices (short-rotation versus permanent forest) were combined to form...
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The Mississippi River Deltaic Plain has extensive marsh habitats (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) where soil cores were collected to a depth of 100 cm at 24 sites to assess long-term carbon accumulation rates and coast-wide burial rates. Each core was sectioned into 2-cm depth intervals, and select intervals were analyzed for percent moisture, bulk density, total carbon, and radionuclide (137Cs and 210Pb).
An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 years to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and P. deltoides x P. nigra (Norway, Noreaster, Raverdaus, 14274, 14272). Data were collected for growth, aerial biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, carbon sequestration, and insect and disease infestation. OP367 and 52225 consistently had larger tree diameters than other hybrids for each of the 6 years. Averaged across clones, yield was 58.4 Mg ha?1. OP367 had the highest yield at 72.2 Mg ha?1 and 14274 had the lowest...
This paper investigates injection of CO2 into non-dome-shaped geological structures that do not provide the traps traditionally deemed necessary for the development of artificial CO2 reservoirs. We have developed a conceptual and two numerical models of the geology and groundwater along a cross-section lying approximately NW?SE and in the vicinity of the Hunter power station on the Colorado Plateau, Central Utah and identified a number of potential sequestration sites on this cross-section. Preliminary modeling identified the White Rim Sandstone as appearing to offer the properties required of a successful sequestration site. Detailed modeling of injection of CO2 into the White Rim Sandstone using the reactive chemical...
When agricultural land is no longer used for cultivation and allowed to revert to natural vegetation or replanted to perennial vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate. This accumulation process essentially reverses some of the effects responsible for soil organic carbon losses from when the land was converted from perennial vegetation. We discuss the essential elements of what is known about soil organic matter dynamics that may result in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature that reports changes in soil organic carbon after changes in land-use that favour carbon accumulation. This data summary provides a guide to approximate rates of SOC sequestration...
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This dataset includes ten years of emissions and sequestration estimates (2005-2014) in two separate tables, 1) the combustion and extraction of fossil fuels on Federal lands and 2) processes from the ecosystems on those Federal lands. The fossil fuel related estimates include the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and the ecosystems estimates include only CO2. The results are presented by State and year, including the Pacific and Gulf offshore areas in the fossil fuel associated estimates. In addition to total emissions, the estimates are broken into categories by the sector of the economy where the combustion or extraction related emissions occurred or the biologic process...
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Carbon storage by ecosystem type and protection status was derived from total ecosystem carbon estimates provided by Sleeter et al. 2018 and used to estimate terrestrial carbon storage in developed, forested, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, and agricultural land in the Southeast United States. It does not include estimates for wetland carbon storage. Sleeter, B.M., Liu, J., Daniel, C., Rayfield, B., Sherba, J., Hawbaker, T.J., Zhu, Z., Selmants, P.C. and Loveland, T.R., 2018. Effects of contemporary land-use and land-cover change on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in the United States. Environmental Research Letters, 13(4), p.045006.
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We studied the impacts of using cattle grazing or prescribed fire to manage remnant prairies on plant communities and soil characteristics in the prairie parkland province of western Minnesota. These datasets consist of nested frequency plot plant survey data, study site and soil characteristics, and management information taken from 73 sites owned and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, The Nature Conservancy and private land owners. Because management effects can take many years to become evident, we evaluated response variables on remnant prairies that had been subject to either fire or grazing for at least 10 years prior to our surveys, between 2005-2015.
Policymakers and managers in the U.S. energy sector will face complex multidimensional challenges as they confront potential supply shortfalls, infrastructure constraints, and environmental limitations in the years ahead. Using a technique known as scenario analysis, this paper investigates key energy issues and decisions that could improve or reduce the ability of the United States to deal with the uncertainties that may challenge the U.S. economy during the next fifty years. Four scenarios have been developed representing a diverse range of future worlds to explore the driving forces and critical uncertainties that may shape U.S. energy markets and the economy for the next fifty years. Each scenario has been quantified...


map background search result map search result map Production of hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture in Western Colorado USGS Soil Biogeochemistry Federal Lands Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sequestration in the United States: Estimates 2005-14 - Data Release Long-term soil carbon data and accretion from four marsh types in Mississippi River Delta in 2015 Management of remnant tallgrass prairie by grazing or fire in western Minnesota, 2016-2017 Total ecosystem carbon storage in the Southeast United States A subset of 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan model output to estimate climate change mitigation potential of Louisiana’s coastal area Long-term soil carbon data and accretion from four marsh types in Mississippi River Delta in 2015 Management of remnant tallgrass prairie by grazing or fire in western Minnesota, 2016-2017 A subset of 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan model output to estimate climate change mitigation potential of Louisiana’s coastal area Total ecosystem carbon storage in the Southeast United States Federal Lands Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sequestration in the United States: Estimates 2005-14 - Data Release