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Our demands on natural systems outweigh the capacity of those systems to support us. This paper calls for an approach to development that consistently delivers ‘net benefit’ for biodiversity or ‘ecological enhancement’. Examples of enhancement are presented through four case studies in India undertaken between 2005 and 2010. Actions focus on improving the overall ecological structure, composition and functions of sites; strengthening ecological networks by creating new habitats and buffer areas; and improving the services provided by the ecosystems, without jeopardizing biodiversity. While recognizing the importance of quantitative metrics of impacts and mitigation measures to determine outcomes, such measures were...
Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar....
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Control technology for dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) currently relies heavily on chemical molluscicides that can be both costly and ecologically harmful. There is a need to develop more environmentally neutral control tools to manage dreissenid mussels, particularly in cooler water. Previously, carbon dioxide (CO2) showed selective toxicity for Zebra mussels, relative to unionids, when applied in cool water (12 °C). Carp-Carbon Dioxide (carbon dioxide, CO2) is registered as a pesticide by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for deterrence of Asian carp and to control aquatic nuisance species when applied under ice (USEPA 2019). The current registration would allow the use of...
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In 2007, a phase shift from corals to corallimorpharians (CM) was documented at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, centered around a shipwreck. Subsequent surveys revealed CM to be overgrowing the reef benthos, including corals and coralline algae, potentially placing coral ecosystems in the atoll at risk. This prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the lead management agency of the atoll, to remove the shipwreck. Subsequent surveys showed reversal of spread of CM around the ship impact site. We explain patterns of spread of the CM in terms of life history and local currents and show with a pilot study that pulverized bleach may be an effective tool to eradicate CM on a local scale. If applied strategically, particularly...
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Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are a non-native species to North America that were first introduced for vegetation control in the 1960s. However, wild-reproducing Grass Carp can negatively impact aquatic habitats and aquatic communities by consuming substantial amounts of aquatic vegetation and increasing turbidity. Numerous fisheries techniques have been used in an attempt to control or eradicate Grass Carp, including electrofishing. However, electrofishing efficiency for Grass Carp has been variable, and optimum electrofishing waveforms and parameters for inducing a capture-prone response have not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum electrofishing waveforms and parameters...
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Description of Work The invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) is a well-established pest in many parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, including designated Areas of Concern. New innovative control options that sustainably target the competitive advantage often enjoyed by Phragmites and other invasive plants will contribute to a broad Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. This project targets the microorganisms that may help Phragmites spread and will employ a molecular genetic approach to silence the genes in Phragmites that give it a competitive edge over many native plants. This project helped build and will continue to be closely aligned with the Great Lakes Phragmites...
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We developed and applied a simple population model to examine the relation between abundance of wolves in a wilderness area and the numbers that emigrate into adjacent agricultural areas and that may need to be removed on an annual basis. The model was applied using Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) data. The gray wolf is emigrating from northern wilderness areas in the State of Minnesota (USA) into adjacent agricultural and urban areas to the south, and the costs of both wolf control and compensation to farmers for lost livestock is increasing as the number of wolves increases. Emigration reduces the number of wolves on a refuge to about 85% of the carrying capacity, and the number of wolves that emigrate into the agricultural...
Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and square- wave pulse direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22°C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power...
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This study evaluated carbon dioxide (CO2) injected into water as a possible behavioral stimulant to enhance capture and removal of invasive red swamp crayfish (RSC, Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1852) from a retention pond in southeastern Michigan. Objectives of this study were to (1) determine if target CO2 concentrations were attainable within the infested pond, and (2) determine if CO2 treatment was effective to push RSC towards shorelines or onto dry land where they could be collected and removed. Carbon dioxide was applied directly into one treatment pond (~2,500 m3) in Novi, MI. Two nearby ponds in Livonia, MI were used as untreated control ponds. Crayfish removal efficiency was evaluated in all ponds using...


map background search result map search result map Modeling emigration of wolves from a wilderness area into adjacent agricultural regions Invasive Phragmites: Prevention, Monitoring, and Control Strategies in an Integrated Pest Management Framework Control Mines Geologic Map Control Mines, Daily-Geesman Area Geologic Cross Section Along Line GH Control Mines and Adjoining Mines Claim Map Control Mines Geology Section Magnetometer Survey (Vertical Magnetic Intensity) for Control Mines, Old Hat Mining District Control Mines, Daily-Geesman Area Geologic Cross Section Along Line MN Control Mines, Daily-Geesman Area Geologic Cross Section Along Line UV Control Mine Map Level 4 Control Mines Location Map Control Mines, Daily-Geesman Area Geologic Cross Section Along Line EF Control Mines, Daily-Geesman Area Geologic Cross Section Along Line OP Corallimorph Invasion Palmyra: Data Water quality and atmospheric carbon dioxide data for field application of carbon dioxide during summer 2018 as a behavioral control method for invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in southeastern Michigan water retention ponds. Water quality and atmospheric carbon dioxide data for field application of carbon dioxide during summer 2018 as a behavioral control method for invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in southeastern Michigan water retention ponds. Corallimorph Invasion Palmyra: Data Modeling emigration of wolves from a wilderness area into adjacent agricultural regions Invasive Phragmites: Prevention, Monitoring, and Control Strategies in an Integrated Pest Management Framework