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The paper traces the manner in which an obligation came to be imposed on select industries, requiring them to take account of amenity, wildlife and outdoor-recreational interests in the course of preparing and carrying out developmental schemes. Under pressure from the relevant voluntary bodies, the statutory obligations, first imposed on hydro-electric power development, were generalized to cover 'whole' industries, and then, under the Countryside Acts of 1967-68, were extended to all State utilities. The recent privatization of those industries has provided a further pretext for extending and strengthening the 'amenity' clause. The approach has provided important insights into how industry itself might become...
Despite the relationship between urbanization, energy use and CO2 emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in development stages or income levels. Most previous studies have implicitly assumed that the impact of urbanization is homogenous for all countries. This assumption can be questionable as there are many characteristic differences among countries of different levels of affluence. This paper investigates empirically the effects of urbanization on energy use and CO2 emissions with consideration of the different development stages. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model and a balanced panel...
Over the 1970s and 1980s, emissions of carbon dioxide from energy use fell in per capita, per unit GDP, and in some cases in absolute terms in 10 industrialized countries studied by LBNL. These declines were driven principally by falling end-use energy intensities and the decreasing carbon content of energy. By the early 1990s, however, a slowdown in the decline of intensities and the continued growth of GDP and energy services activity have reversed the trends in absolute emissions. LBNL concludes that CO2 emissions will continue to rise in the future unless energy intensities and/or the carbon content of energy can be decreased at an accelerated rate via policy changes, technological innovation and/or behavioural...
Electricity is needed to extract, treat and convey water. Water service providers recognize that electricity costs constitute one of the biggest operational costs of Water Supply Systems (WSS). The practice of water supply requires new energy management strategies and solutions which need to improve WSS energy and hydraulic efficiency and to be innovative, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Three management practices and solutions for WSS are presented and analyzed in this paper. The first solution proposes the installation of a water turbine in gravity pipes for pressure control and for electricity production. The second solution is the optimization of pump operational schedules according to electricity...
The European Union has established challenging targets for the share of renewable energies to be achieved by 2020; for Spain, 20% of the final energy consumption must be from renewable sources at such time. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the consequences for the electricity sector (in terms of excess cost of electricity, investment requirements, land occupation, CO2 emissions and overcapacity of conventional power) of several possibilities to comply with the desired targets. Scenarios are created from different hypotheses for energy demand, biofuel share in final energy in transport, contribution of renewables for heating and cooling, renewable electricity generation (generation mix, deployment rate, learning...
Countries differ substantially in their capabilities to limit future emissions of CO 2. Fairness, or equity, should be seen against the background of these differences. This paper proposes an 'equal burden' formula for CO 2 emissions, based upon John Rawls's theory of justice. The premise will then be that quotas are given according to needs. The needs for CO 2 emissions have to be decided according to needs for services that have to be provided by CO 2 emitting processes, either by fossil energy use or by industrial processes. The paper shows how these needs may be operationalized for different sectors and different countries in a comprehensive way. The permissible global CO 2 emissions are assumed to be the maximum...
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Our research focuses on assessing the components of the Net Ecoystem Carbon Balance using the eddy covariance approach to measure atmospheric fluxes of heat, energy, carbon dioxide and methane and testing equipment and techniques to measure the tidal exchange of dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC). The atmospheric flux tower is located south of Solano Land Trust's Rush Ranch, a working ranch encompassing 2,070 acres of marsh and rolling grasslands that provides both recreational and educational experiences for the public (http://www.solanolandtrust.org/RushRanch.aspx). Lateral fluxes are being collected at the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve First Mallard water quality station...
Despite the relationship between urbanization, energy use and CO2 emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in development stages or income levels. Most previous studies have implicitly assumed that the impact of urbanization is homogenous for all countries. This assumption can be questionable as there are many characteristic differences among countries of different levels of affluence. This paper investigates empirically the effects of urbanization on energy use and CO2 emissions with consideration of the different development stages. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model and a balanced panel...
Despite the relationship between urbanization, energy use and CO2 emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in development stages or income levels. Most previous studies have implicitly assumed that the impact of urbanization is homogenous for all countries. This assumption can be questionable as there are many characteristic differences among countries of different levels of affluence. This paper investigates empirically the effects of urbanization on energy use and CO2 emissions with consideration of the different development stages. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model and a balanced panel...
Countries differ substantially in their capabilities to limit future emissions of CO 2. Fairness, or equity, should be seen against the background of these differences. This paper proposes an 'equal burden' formula for CO 2 emissions, based upon John Rawls's theory of justice. The premise will then be that quotas are given according to needs. The needs for CO 2 emissions have to be decided according to needs for services that have to be provided by CO 2 emitting processes, either by fossil energy use or by industrial processes. The paper shows how these needs may be operationalized for different sectors and different countries in a comprehensive way. The permissible global CO 2 emissions are assumed to be the maximum...
Countries differ substantially in their capabilities to limit future emissions of CO 2. Fairness, or equity, should be seen against the background of these differences. This paper proposes an 'equal burden' formula for CO 2 emissions, based upon John Rawls's theory of justice. The premise will then be that quotas are given according to needs. The needs for CO 2 emissions have to be decided according to needs for services that have to be provided by CO 2 emitting processes, either by fossil energy use or by industrial processes. The paper shows how these needs may be operationalized for different sectors and different countries in a comprehensive way. The permissible global CO 2 emissions are assumed to be the maximum...
The Enqu~te-Commission on 'Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth's Atmosphere' of the German Bundestag has proposed a 30% reduction target for C02 emissions by the year 2005 for Germany, of 20-25% for the European Community and 5% worldwide, which would allow developing countries an increase in C02 emissions of 50%. The Enqu~te-Commission expects that one half of this reduction target could be achieved by more efficient energy-use (-17% on top of trend energy savings) and by modifications in consumer behaviour (-5%). This ambitious vision is not inconsistent with the available technical and theoretical potential for rational energy-use. The German Cabinet has taken up the issue and voted for a 25% reduction in...
The potential variance in feedstock costs can have significant implications for the cost of a biofuel and the financial viability of a biofuel facility. This paper employs the Grange Feed Costing Model to assess the cost of on-farm biomethane production using grass silages produced under a range of management scenarios. These costs were compared with the cost of wheat grain and sugarbeet roots for ethanol production at an industrial scale. Of the three feedstocks examined, grass silage represents the cheapest feedstock per GJ of biofuel produced. At a production cost of €27/tonne (t) feedstock (or €150/t volatile solids (VS)), the feedstock production cost of grass silage per gigajoule (GJ) of biofuel (€12.27) is...
Countries differ substantially in their capabilities to limit future emissions of CO 2. Fairness, or equity, should be seen against the background of these differences. This paper proposes an 'equal burden' formula for CO 2 emissions, based upon John Rawls's theory of justice. The premise will then be that quotas are given according to needs. The needs for CO 2 emissions have to be decided according to needs for services that have to be provided by CO 2 emitting processes, either by fossil energy use or by industrial processes. The paper shows how these needs may be operationalized for different sectors and different countries in a comprehensive way. The permissible global CO 2 emissions are assumed to be the maximum...
Despite the relationship between urbanization, energy use and CO2 emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in development stages or income levels. Most previous studies have implicitly assumed that the impact of urbanization is homogenous for all countries. This assumption can be questionable as there are many characteristic differences among countries of different levels of affluence. This paper investigates empirically the effects of urbanization on energy use and CO2 emissions with consideration of the different development stages. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model and a balanced panel...
The future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change. While global emissions scenarios are ultimately of interest for climate modeling, many of the factors that influence energy and fuel consumption operate on a local rather than global level. However, there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the ecological and socioeconomic processes that will determine the future trajectory of net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at local and regional scales. We conducted an interdisciplinary, whole ecosystem study of the role of climate, urban expansion, urban form, transportation, and the urban forest in influencing net CO2 emissions in the Salt Lake Valley,...
The European Union has established challenging targets for the share of renewable energies to be achieved by 2020; for Spain, 20% of the final energy consumption must be from renewable sources at such time. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the consequences for the electricity sector (in terms of excess cost of electricity, investment requirements, land occupation, CO2 emissions and overcapacity of conventional power) of several possibilities to comply with the desired targets. Scenarios are created from different hypotheses for energy demand, biofuel share in final energy in transport, contribution of renewables for heating and cooling, renewable electricity generation (generation mix, deployment rate, learning...
Building energy use accounts for almost 50% of the total CO2 emissions in the UK. Most of the research has focused on reducing the operational impact of buildings, however in recent years many studies have indicated the significance of embodied energy in different building types. This paper primarily focuses on illustrating the relative importance of operational and embodied energy in a flexible use light distribution warehouse. The building is chosen for the study as it is relatively easy to model and represents many distribution centres and industrial warehouses in Europe. A carbon footprinting study was carried out by conducting an inventory of the major installed materials with potentially significant carbon...


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