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We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, capture, gas, gas streams, process
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, capture, gas, gas streams, process
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, capture, gas, gas streams, process
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, capture, gas, gas streams, process
Natural gas plays a key role in our nation’s clean energy future. Recent advances in drilling technologies—including horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—have made vast reserves of natural gas economically recoverable in the US. Responsible development of America’s oil and gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits. Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique used to maximize production of oil and natural gas in unconventional reservoirs, such as shale, coalbeds, and tight sands. During hydraulic fracturing, specially engineered fluids containing chemical additives and proppant are pumped under high pressure into the well to create and hold open fractures...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early...
Although various studies have shown that corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing fossil fuel use, many of these studies fail to include how land-use history affects the net carbon balance through changes in soil carbon content. We evaluated the effectiveness and economic value of corn and cellulosic ethanol production for reducing net GHG emissions when produced on lands with different land-use histories, comparing these strategies with reductions achieved by set-aside programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Depending on prior land use, our analysis shows that C releases from the soil after planting corn for ethanol may in some cases completely offset C gains attributed...
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a "hard cap" or a "soft cap". Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories--with two branches after...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, Energy transition, Uncertainty
Pathogens and herbivores can severely reduce host fitness, potentially leading to altered succession rates and changes in plant community composition. Thus, to predict vegetation dynamics under climate change, it is necessary to understand how plant pathogens and herbivores will respond. Pathogens and herbivores are predicted to increase under climate warming because the amount of time available for growth and reproduction will increase. To test this prediction, we used a warming experiment in which heaters were suspended over a natural montane meadow for 12 years. In the summer of 2002, we quantified damage by all the observable (aboveground) pathogens and herbivores on six of the most common plant species (Artemisia...
We investigated the effect of plant residue decomposability and fungal biomass on the dynamics of macroaggregate (250?2000 ?m) formation in a three months' incubation experiment and determined the distribution of residue-derived C and N in the microbial biomass and in aggregate size fractions (250?2000 ?m, 53?250 ?m and <53 ?m) using 13C and 15N data. A silty loam soil (sieved <250 ?m) was incubated with and without addition of 15N labelled maize leaves (C/N = 27.4) and roots (C/N = 86.4). Each treatment was carried out with and without fungicide application. The addition of maize residues enhanced soil respiration and microbial biomass C and N and resulted in increased macroaggregate formation with a higher and...
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: CO2, capture, gas, gas streams, process
This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to midterm projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA’s 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility...
A new transportation demand model is described showing a simple data-base structure. It only requires input data referring to the fleets and the engine characteristics of the transportation park. The main characteristic of the model is its expertise in analysing the effects of different policies oriented to the reduction of the pollution levels and to the energy savings in the transportation sector. The results are provided both in terms of energy consumption and quantities of pollutant released to the environment. The effects of different transportation scenarios can be easily analysed using a simple "electronic sheet" way of representation.
As wind power development continues at a rapid pace in the United States, there is increasing interest in its economic impacts. Because good wind resources are typically far from electrical loads, wind power plants are often built in rural areas. The economic impacts that arise from building and operating a power plant can be significant but are often not considered by public utility commission processes. Although these impacts vary from state to state because of the differences in wind resource and state infrastructure, economic development from new wind provides important impacts from necessary power system expansion and should play a more prominent role in decision-making processes. This paper uses the National...
A field experiment involving the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a shallow aquifer was conducted near Bozeman, Montana, during the summer of 2008, to investigate the potential groundwater quality impacts in the case of leakage of CO2 from deep geological storage. As an essential part of the Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field program, food-grade CO2 was injected over a 30 day period into a horizontal perforated pipe a few feet below the water table of a shallow aquifer. The impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on groundwater quality was investigated by analyzing water samples taken before, during, and following CO2 injection, from observation wells located in the...