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State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
This study proposes a new use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the operational, environmental and both-unified efficiency measures of US coal-fired power plants. The power plants produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO2 and NOx) as a result of their plant operations. A Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) is used as an original non-radial DEA model. Then, it is reformulated for handling undesirable (bad) outputs. The proposed use of DEA models measures the environmental and unified performance of power plants under two variable alternatives (with and without CO2 emission control) in order to examine both the influence of US Clean Air Act (CAA) on the acid...
The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect...
Two grasses, Agropyron smithii and A. inerme , were planted in a seed mixture with Ceratoides lanata in 1977 on two soil disturbances. These grasses were selected to test their responses to the presence of C. lanata . Biomass of leaf, stem, crown and roots were measured for each grass alone, with other plants of the same species, and with C. lanata as nearest neighbor. Total non-structural carbohydrates were determined for all biomass samples. A. smithii produced the lowest amounts of stem and root biomass when grown in close association with another A. smithii plant. In contrast, this species produced the most shallow-root (0-20 cm) biomass when closely associated with C. lanata. A. inerme leaf biomass was lowest...
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This product is one of a set of mapped model simulation results generated for a project called "Global Climate Change and California: Potential Implications for Ecosystems, Health, and the Economy". The project was conducted by the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) and funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The project was the most detailed study ever undertaken on the potential effect of climate change on California. The work examined a broad array of potentially affected sectors as well as the interactions between climate change and increased population, economic growth, and technological change. It considered a wide range of climate change scenarios,...
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This map represents the mean annual value of total ecosystem carbon, simulated by the model MC1 for the 30-year period 1971-2000. The data is from output variable C_ECOSYS in MC1 version B60. The data is in units of grams of carbon per square meter; values range from 6739 to 77570 g C m-2. The mean value is 35184 g C m-2. The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 (e.g. Bachelet et al. 2001) was used to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget, and wild fire impacts at two study sites in eastern Oregon (Deschutes and Fremont-Winema National Forests) and in Arizona (Apache Sitgreaves National Forest area) in the context of a project funded by the USDA Forest Service (PNW 09-JV-11261900-003)....
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Observations from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used in combination with a large data set of Field measurements to map woody above-ground biomass (AGB) across tropical Africa. We generated a best-quality cloud-free mosaic of MODIS satellite reflectance observations for the period 2000-2003 and used a regression tree model to predict AGB at 1 km resolution. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model explained 82% of the variance in AGB, with a root mean square error of 50.5 Mg ha-1 for a range of biomass between 0 and 454 Mg ha-1 . Analysis of lidar metrics from the Geoscience Laser Altimetry System (GLAS), which are sensitive to vegetation structure, indicate...


map background search result map search result map Average annual value of total ecosystem carbon (1971-2000) for the Eastern Oregon study area, USA Angola woody above ground biomass (tonnes/hectare) PCM IS92a future climate scenario: Simulated potential natural vegetation for California Average annual value of total ecosystem carbon (1971-2000) for the Eastern Oregon study area, USA PCM IS92a future climate scenario: Simulated potential natural vegetation for California Angola woody above ground biomass (tonnes/hectare)